Czech presidential election, 2018

Czech presidential election, 2018

← 2013 12–13 January 2018 (first round)
26–27 January 2018 (second round)
2023 →
Opinion polls
Turnout 61.92% (first round) 0.61 pp
66.60% (second round) 7.49 pp
 
Candidate Miloš Zeman Jiří Drahoš
Party SPO Independent
Popular vote 2,853,390 2,701,206
Percentage 51.4% 48.6%

Results of the second round by district
     Miloš Zeman      Jiří Drahoš

President before election

Miloš Zeman
SPO

Elected President

Miloš Zeman
SPO

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Czech Republic
Political parties
Foreign relations


Czech Republic portal

Presidential elections were held in the Czech Republic in January 2018. The first round took place on 12 and 13 January. As no candidate won a majority, a run-off election between the top two candidates, Jiří Drahoš and President Miloš Zeman, was held on 26 and 27 January 2018.

In the first round voters chose between nine candidates who qualified for the election either by gathering 50,000 signatures from the public, 10 signatures from Senators or 20 signatures from members of the Chamber of Deputies (MPs). Incumbent president Miloš Zeman, running for re-election to his second and last term, finished first with 38.57%, followed by former President of the Czech Academy of Sciences Jiří Drahoš, who received 26.60%.

In the second round, Miloš Zeman narrowly defeated Drahoš and was elected for a second term in office. The turnout was 66.60%, the highest since the 1998 legislative election.

Background[edit]

Former Prime Minister Miloš Zeman was elected as President of the Czech Republic in 2013, defeating Minister of Foreign Affairs Karel Schwarzenberg in the country's first direct presidential elections. Until 2012, all presidential elections in the Czech Republic were indirect, with the president being chosen by the Parliament of the Czech Republic.[1]

According to polls conducted in 2016, Zeman was the front-runner and his chances of re-election were considered high,[2][3][4] although it was speculated that Zeman's candidacy would be determined by his health.[5][6][7] Zeman announced his candidacy on 9 March 2017.[8] There was speculation that both the Social Democrats (ČSSD) and ANO 2011 may endorse Zeman,[9] but neither party did in the end. Some commentators speculated that Zeman could be elected in the first round.[10][11]

On 23 August 2017, the Speaker of the Senate announced that the first round would be held on 12 and 13 January 2018, with a second round being held on 26 and 27 January 2018, if required.[12] The deadline for nominating candidates was scheduled for 7 November 2017.[13]

Candidates[edit]

In order to qualify for the ballot, candidates must gather 50,000 signatures from citizens, or the support of twenty Deputies or ten Senators. The candidates must file their applications and signatures 66 days before the election, following which the Interior Ministry will verify a sample of the signatures.

19 candidates submitted themselves as candidates.[14] Only nine of them met requirements for registration and became official candidates: Jiří Drahoš, Pavel Fischer, Petr Hannig, Marek Hilšer, Michal Horáček, Jiří Hynek, Vratislav Kulhánek, Mirek Topolánek and Miloš Zeman.[15]

Second round candidates[edit]

Candidates in the second round
Miloš Zeman Jiří Drahoš
Party of Civic Rights Independent
3rd
President of the Czech Republic
(2013–present)
President of the
Czech Academy of Sciences
(2009–2017)

Official candidates[edit]

Nine candidates gathered the required amount of signatures and had their candidacy approved by the Ministry of the Interior. Candidates are listed according to number allocated by the Ministry.[16]

Candidate name and age,[17]
political party
Office(s) held Details
Mirek Topolánek (61)
Independent
with ODS support
Prime Minister
(2006–2009)
Leader of the Civic Democratic Party
(2002–2010)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
(2006–2009)
Senator from Ostrava
(1996–2004)
Running as number 1 with support from 10 Senators – Speculation about Topolánek's candidacy started in November 2017 when Václav Klaus Jr. mentioned that Topolánek was seeking the party's support.[18][19] He announced his candidacy on 5 November 2017,[20] which was viewed by some experts as a potential major turning point in the campaign.[21] He ran with the support of ODS and SsČR.[22]
Michal Horáček (65)
Independent
None Running as number 2 with 86,940 signatures from the public[23] – After a period of speculation,[24] Horáček announced on 7 October 2016 that he had decided to run for president.[25] His slogan was: "We can do better."[26] In early 2017 Horáček was considered the main rival to Zeman.[27][28]
Pavel Fischer (52)
Independent
Ambassador to France
(2003–2010)
Running as number 3 with support from 17 Senators – Fischer announced his candidacy on 4 October 2017.[29][30]
Jiří Hynek (57)
Realists
Chairman of the Association for Weapons and Defense Industry
(since 2011)
Running as number 4 with support from 29 MPs[31] – Hynek announced his candidacy on 21 August 2017, as the candidate of the Realists political party.[32]
Petr Hannig (71)
Party of Common Sense
supported by ND, RSČMS, ZpL, KSH, ČHNJ, DSZ[33]
Leader of the Party of Common Sense
(since 2002)
Running as number 5 with support from 26 MPs – Hannig announced his candidacy on 19 July 2017.[34] On 26 October 2017, he announced that he had been nominated by 20 MPs.[35]
Vratislav Kulhánek (74)
Civic Democratic Alliance
CEO of Škoda Auto
(1997-2004)
President of the Czech Ice Hockey Association
(2004–2008)
Running as number 6 with support from 24 MPs – On 29 June 2017, the Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) announced Kulhánek as its candidate.[36] Although the party does not have any MPs or Senators, he managed to secure nomination by 23 MPs, after failing to gather sufficient signatures from the public.[37]
Miloš Zeman (73)
Independent
with SPO support
President of the Czech Republic
(since 2013)
Prime Minister
(1998–2002)
Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies
(1996–1998)
Honorary Chairman of SPO (since 2010)[38]
Leader of the Social Democratic Party
(1993–2001)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
(1996–2002)
Running as number 7 with 103,817 signatures from the public – He announced that he would run for a second term on 9 March 2017.[39][9] His supporters are using the slogan "Zeman again!"[40] Opinion polls indicated that he was the front-runner in the first round of the election.[41]
Marek Hilšer (41)
Independent
None Running as number 8 with support from 11 Senators – He announced his candidacy in July 2016, becoming the first declared candidate.[42][43] Hilšer asked the Senators for support after failing to gather sufficient signatures from the public.[37]
Jiří Drahoš (68)
Independent
supported by KDU-ČSL and STAN
President of the Czech Academy of Sciences
(2009–2017)
Running as number 9 with 141,234 signatures from the public – He announced his intention to run on 28 March 2017,[44] becoming Zeman's main rival.[45] His candidacy was supported by KDU-ČSL and STAN.[46]

Disqualified candidates[edit]

  • Josef Toman, running as an independent, said that he had submitted nomination papers signed by 75,000 people, but was disqualified for not fulfilling the quorum.[47]
  • Businesswoman Terezie Holovská announced her candidacy on 31 October 2017.[48]
  • Other disqualified candidates were Petr Blaha, Daniel Felkel, Oldřich Fiala, Roman Hladík, Libor Hrančík, David Chadim, Anna Kašná, Martin Ludačka and Karel Světnička.[49]

Withdrawn candidates[edit]

  • Former MP Otto Chaloupka (cs) announced his candidacy on 10 April 2017,[50] but ended his presidential bid on 7 November 2017 having failed to gather enough signatures.[51]
  • Michal Gulyáš, an actor, producer and writer, announced his candidacy on 11 January 2017 but withdrew from the election on 7 February for personal reasons.[52][53]
  • Miroslav Sládek, leader of SPR-RSČ, started collecting signatures,[54] and announced his candidacy on 27 February 2017.[55] On 23 October 2017 he withdrew from the election due to his party's poor results in the 2017 legislative election.[56]
  • Businessman Vladimír Boštík announced his candidacy on 30 August 2017.[57]

Party endorsements[edit]

In the first round, Jiří Drahoš ran with the support of the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party[58] and Mayors and Independents.[59] Miloš Zeman ran with the support of Freedom and Direct Democracy[60] and the Party of Civic Rights (SPO).[61] On the day before the vote, ANO 2011 leader Andrej Babiš also endorsed Zeman.[62] In addition, Topolánek was endorsed by centre-right ODS[63] and the Freeholder Party.[22]

Parties which did not issue any official endorsement included the Party of Free Citizens (Svobodní),[64]TOP 09,[65] the Green Party,[66] the Moravians party,[67] the Communist Party,[68] and the Czech Pirate Party,[69] though several individual politicians endorsed candidates privately. The Social Democrats experienced an internal split over which candidate to endorse, leading to no official party endorsement,[70][71] but different groups within the party endorsing either Zeman,[72][73] or Drahoš.[74]

In the second round, Drahoš received further endorsements from ODS and TOP 09.[75][76]

Campaign before nominations[edit]

Early campaign[edit]

Senator Zdeněk Škromach was the first candidate to announce his intention to run, in 2015.[77] In response, Tomáš Halík announced that he would run for president if Škromach did.[78] This led former president Václav Klaus to announce that he would run against Halík if he was running without a strong rival.[79] Škromach, Halík and Klaus all finally declined to run.[80]

On 21 May 2016, former minister Michael Kocáb issued the "Kroměříž Proclamation", with the intention of finding a strong candidate to run against Zeman. Kocáb suggested Michal Horáček, who declined the movement's support but did not rule out running.[81] Horáček mentioned his possible candidacy in April 2016 and some polls indicated that he would be the strongest possible contender to Zeman.[82][83][84]

Marek Hilšer launched his campaign in July 2016, with the slogan: "Marek to the Castle." He said he would finance his presidential campaign through a transparent account.[85] Hilšer has negative opinions of Russia and China, and also supports helping immigrants.[86]

Michal Horáček was Zeman's leading rival according to polls in 2016 and early 2017

Michal Horáček officially launched his campaign on 3 November 2016.[87] A week earlier he had moderated a meeting at Old Town Square, which was considered to be the actual start of his campaign as it was meant to coincide with official celebrations of Czech Statehood Day.[88][89][90] Horáček stated that he wanted his campaign to be based on respect for all people and all opinions. He also said that he believed he could win in the first round.[91] TOP 09, STAN and KDU-ČSL were considering supporting Horáček before his campaign started,[92] but none of them did in the end. Horáček also entered into a dispute with TOP 09.[93][94][95]

On 21 December 2016, Institute for Democracy 21 launched an interactive web game to choose a presidential candidate. Everyone who voted was allowed to cast three positive votes and one negative vote. Jiří Pánek started as the winning candidate, despite having ruled himself out of running.[96] As of April 2017, Jiří Drahoš is leading the game.

It was reported in January 2017 that Czech political parties had decided to cease preparations for the election until Zeman announced whether he was seeking re-election.[97] Zeman discussed his possible candidacy with close colleagues on 31 January. One of them stated that Zeman was likely to run for re-election, and would announce his decision on 9 March 2017.[98]

On 9 February 2017 Horáček announced his team of his advisers, including Magda Vášáryová, Dana Drábová and Pavel Pefko.[99] In response, Zeman said that Horáček "never says what he thinks. His advisers will talk instead of him."[100] Zeman attended the SPO Congress on 11 February 2017, at which SPO leader Jan Veleba assured Zeman that the party would support his reelection campaign if he decided to run.[101] Zeman visited hospital for a preventive examination after the congress.[102]

On 9 March, the Kroměříž Proclamation started gathering signatures for Marek Hilšer and Petr Kolář.[103]

March 2017[edit]

Zeman announced his candidacy on 9 March during a meeting with his supporters, and confirmed his decision the next day in a press conference, saying that he had been persuaded by the support of the people. He commented that he did not consider himself the favourite in the election, and also said he would not run a political campaign, attack his rivals, or participate in debates, but would gather the 50,000 signatures required to qualify for the presidential ballot.[104] He also announced that he would appear in a television programme called A week with the President.[105] Michal Horáček criticised Zeman's decision not to participate in presidential debates.[106]

On 13 March, Karel Štogl, a former member of ČSSD who still has links with the party, announced his intention to run and began seeking parliamentary support for his nomination.[107][108][109]

Jiří Drahoš, former President of the Czech Academy of Sciences, announced his candidacy on 28 March 2017.[110] Drahoš said he did not want to be the official candidate of any party, but some party leaders expressed their intention to endorse him. Petr Gazdík, the leader of Mayors and Independents, described Drahoš as a great candidate and rival to Zeman, and said he believed he could convince his party to support Drahoš. The leaders of TOP 09 and KDU-ČSL also said they were considering supporting him. ODS leader Petr Fiala refused to comment on Drahoš's candidacy but acknowledged him to be a dignified candidate.[44] Leader of ANO 2011 Andrej Babiš said that he considered Drahoš a respectable person but noted that Drahoš did not want the support of any party. In response to the announcement, Zeman's spokesman Jiří Ovčáček described Drahoš as "just a product of PR". He added that in his view the Czech Republic needed "a president who will stand by people in situations such as the migration crisis", not just "a yes man who can deliver empty speeches".[110] Michal Horáček said that Drahoš would be a candidate of political parties and would have to return their support.[111] Drahoš met journalists at the National Technical Library on 30 March 2017. He described himself as an independent candidate who supports the European Union and NATO, and also stated that he would reject a government that included the Communist Party. He also announced plans to gather 50,000 signatures instead of being nominated by lawmakers.[112][113]

April 2017[edit]

On 16 April 2017, Michal Horáček started gathering signatures, saying that he believed he could collect the required number within a matter of weeks.[114]

Petitioning for Michal Horáček in Brno.

The Party of Civic Rights (SPO) began Zeman's presidential campaign, under the slogan "Zeman again!" The campaign included some of Zeman's close colleagues, though Zeman himself had stated that he would not campaign.[40] First lady Ivana Zemanová was named head of Zeman's campaign team. SPO started gathering signatures on 24 April 2017.[115][116][117]

Jiří Drahoš also started gathering signatures on 24 April 2017, with approximately 500 volunteers.[118] Drahoš also announced that his spokeswoman would be Lenka Pastorčáková, a journalist for Czech Television.[119]

May 2017[edit]

On 6 May 2017, Horáček announced that he had gathered between 47,000 and 52,000 signatures, with the help of 2,500 supporters. By the same day Marek Hilšer had reached 2,000 signatures.[120]

Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka announced on 16 May 2017 that ČSSD would most likely nominate its own candidate for the election instead of supporting Zeman, due to his actions during the government crisis in May 2017.[121] Zeman's spokesman Jiří Ovčáček responded that this was not a surprise because Sobotka had always been lobbying to prevent Zeman's re-election.[122] According to some ČSSD sources, the purpose of fielding a ČSSD candidate would not be to win the election but to weaken Zeman.[123] Some political scientists speculated that Zeman's actions during the crisis could discourage voters from voting him and damage his chances for reelection.[124][125][126] On 25 May 2017, Sobotka mentioned Minister of Foreign Affairs Lubomír Zaorálek and Senate Speaker Milan Štěch as possible candidates, adding that ČSSD may decide on a candidate in Summer 2017.[127] Opinion polls conducted after the crisis by Median indicated that Zeman's ratings had dropped by 2%. The same poll also showed Drahoš as Zeman's main rival.[128]

In May 2017, during a visit to China, Miloš Zeman was visibly tired and required assistance from his security detail to walk. His spokesman Jiří Ovčáček attributed this to his demanding program, including ten days of work without any time to rest.[129] His tiredness was also visible at the subsequent NATO summit, when Zeman was absent for speeches by political leaders such as Donald Trump, Jens Stoltenberg, and Angela Merkel, during which he would have been required to stand.[130] These events revived speculation about Zeman's health,[131][132] with some commentators speculating that Zeman may withdraw from the election.[133][134][135] Zeman's doctors said that his program was too exhausting and recommended that Zeman rest for one or two weeks. Zeman adjusted his program as a result.[136][137]

On 26 May 2017, Jiří Drahoš launched his campaign at a meeting in Opava. He visited employees of a local factory and some retirement homes.[138] On 30 May Drahoš was endorsed by Miroslav Kalousek, leader of TOP 09, though the party itself did not officially endorse him.[139] Drahoš was expected to receive the support of the Populars and Mayors coalition (KDU-ČSL and Mayors and Independents).[59][140]

June 2017[edit]

On 1 June 2017, Horáček's spokesman Jiří Táborský announced that Horáček had collected the required number of signatures to stand in the election, but would keep collecting.[141] At the same time Zeman had collected 18,000 signatures, Drahoš had collected 20,000, and Marek Hilšer had collected 5,000. Horáček had been collecting signatures at a rate of 1,000 per day, Zeman and Drahoš at 500 per day, and Hilšer at 160 per day. Horáček had 448 signing posts, Zeman 223, Drahoš 230 and Hilšer 14.[142] By 5 June 2017, Drahoš had gathered 25,000 signatures.[143] On 10 June 2017, Karel Štogl announced that he had the support of ten senators, including ČSSD senator Jan Hajda. Hajda refused to comment on Štogl's statement.[144]

On 26 June 2017, Horáček announced his intention to gather signatures for Drahoš and Hilšer, in order to "make the democratic environment better". Drahoš, who had gathered 30,000 signatures to that point, refused Horáček's help,[145][146] while Hilšer accepted it.[147]

Vratislav Kulhánek announced his candidacy on 29 June 2017, as the candidate of the Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), which would collect signatures on his behalf. ODA leader Pavel Sehnal said that Kulhánek was a right-wing candidate, which was something missing in the election. Zeman said that he did not know Kulhánek well but remembered him as a successful manager of Škoda Auto, adding that he had no problem with Kulhánek's candidacy because he believed that it was better to have more candidates.[148][149]

July 2017[edit]

On 1 July 2017, Horáček started working with Ewig Public Relations agency, to help with his campaign.[150] On 4 July, the leaders of KDU-ČSL and STAN announced that they would recommend that their parties support Jiří Drahoš.[151]Petr Hannig, leader of far-right party Rozumní, announced his candidacy on 19 July 2017. He was endorsed by other far-right parties such as National Democracy. Hannig said that he wanted to continue with Zeman's policies but behave differently.[152][153]

By 20 July 2017, Horáček had gathered 65,000 signatures, Zeman 43,000 signatures, Drahoš 35,000 signatures, Hilšer 10,000 signatures (not including signatures gathered by Horáček) and Kulhánek 5,000 signatures. Another prospective candidate, Jaroslav Kubera, had gathered the signatures of 15 Senators, enabling him to be nominated if he decided to run.[154]

August 2017[edit]

Jiří Drahoš during the campaign for the presidency on 19 August 2017.

On 10 August, SPO leader Jan Veleba announced that Zeman had enough signatures to stand in the election.[155] Hilšer had 15,000 signatures at that point, and Drahoš stated that he would reach the required number of signatures sometime in August or September 2017.[156] On 16 August, Ivana Zemanová announced that Zeman had collected 59,263 signatures.[157] Drahoš had at the time over 40,000 signatures.[158] On 19 August 2017, Drahoš announced he had collected 78,321 signatures.[159]

On 21 August, the Realists announced Jiří Hynek as their candidate. The party started to gather signatures for his candidacy, and also to ask MPs for support.[32] Hynek said that some MPs had already promised to support him.[160]

On 24 August, Zeman appeared in public for the first time in two months, to launch the Agrosalon Earth Breadwinner. His spokesman Ovčáček told journalists that Zeman's health was not a problem.[161] Zeman criticized EU subsidies for decreasing milk production, which he described as an "atrocity".[162]

On 30 August, Businessman Vladimír Boštík announced his candidacy, saying that he had already gathered 63,000 signatures.[163] His campaign motto was "A boy from a village wants to conquer Prague Castle.[164]

September 2017[edit]

On 24 September, Drahoš announced he had gathered 100,000 signatures. Horáček had 80,000 signatures and Hilšer 30,000 signatures. Kulhánek announced that he did not have enough signatures and started to seek support from MPs.[37]

October 2017[edit]

On 4 October, Pavel Fischer announced his candidacy, adding that he had gathered the signatures of 10 senators, allowing him to run.[165] Fischer announced his candidacy on Václav Havel's birthday, and said that he would like to be a president similar to Havel.[166] On 10 October, Drahoš called on the incoming government to draw up a plan for the adoption of the Euro currency.[167]

On 13 October, Drahoš announced that he would stop gathering new signatures; by 15 October he had gathered 110,000 signatures.[168] However, he continued collecting for almost a month longer. On 17 October Jiří Hynek announced that he had submitted his nomination with the signatures of 22 MPs.[169] Hynek said that he had gathered 15,000 signatures from the public, but he had started gathering them too late.[170] On 18 October Kulhánek announced that he had been nominated by 23 MPs, and submitted his nomination on the same day.[171] By 26 October, Petr Hannig had received the support of 20 MPs.[34]Mayors and Independents endorsed Drahoš on 31 October, and called for other parties to do the same.[59]

November 2017[edit]

Terezie Holovská announced her candidacy on 2 November, asking 44 female MPs for nomination. Marek Hilšer announced he had received nominations from 11 senators.[172] Drahoš submitted his nomination on 3 November, with 142,000 signatures.[173]

Former Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek announced his candidacy on 5 November 2017

On 4 November, media started to speculate that former Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek could run for the office.[174] Some media reported that Topolánek had asked Senators of the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) for support and also discussed his candidacy with the leader of the party.[175] On 5 November, Topolánek confirmed his candidacy, stating that he was seeking the support of Senators from all parties. Some Civic Democrat politicians endorsed his candidacy.[20] Leader of ANO 2011 Andrej Babiš attacked Topolánek, describing him as the most corrupt Czech Prime Minister.[176] Topolánek's candidacy was also criticised by Jiří Drahoš, who commented that Topolánek represented the same thing as Zeman - rudeness and lack of respect for his opponents. He called Topolánek's candidacy a "bad joke".[177] By 6 November Topolánek had gathered enough signatures to run.[178] ODS endorsed Topolánek on the same day.[63] Some media commentators and political scientists predicted that he could become the main rival to Zeman.[45][179][180] Topolánek quickly became the third strongest candidate, overtaking Michal Horáček in opinion polls.[181]

On 6 November, Zeman submitted his nomination, with 113,038 signatures. Zeman denied speculation about his health and refused to comment on his rivals.[182][183]

Official campaign[edit]

Nominations closed[edit]

Nominations were closed on 7 November 2017. 19 candidates submitted their nominations in time, but on 10 November the Interior Ministry announced that only nine candidates met the requirements for the nomination: Miloš Zeman, Jiří Drahoš, Mirek Topolánek, Michal Horáček, Vratislav Kulhánek, Jiří Hynek, Petr Hannig, Pavel Fischer and Marek Hilšer. The other candidates were disqualified for not meeting the nomination requirements.[184]

Mirek Topolánek held a press conference on 7 November after nominations were closed, saying that he wanted to be a "strong, democratic and political candidate", adding that he had been motivated to stand by Zeman's meeting with Andrej Babiš in Lány. He stated that "Zeman should go down in history as the Prime Minister who brought the Czech Republic into NATO rather than as a president who violated constitutional conventions".[185] Topolánek also introduced his team, consisting of Dana Makrlíková, Gabriela Kloudová, Dalibor Veřmiřovský and Edvard Kožušník.[186] Public relations expert Jakub Horák joined Topolánek's team on 9 November 2017. Horák had managed the successful campaign for the Pirate Party in the October 2017 legislative election.[187]

The Supreme Administrative Court had to decide whether to disqualify five candidates. It ruled that the candidates are permitted to run.

After the nominations were closed, some constitutional lawyers noted that some Senators and MPs had nominated more than one candidate, which could be against the law. The Ministry of Internal Affairs had interpreted the law as allowing legislators to support more than one candidate, and published this interpretation online, which candidates and Senators then followed. Candidates at risk from the mistake by the Ministry included Topolánek, Hannig and Hynek. Jan Kysela commented that he doubted the court would disqualify these candidates, because they would be punishing them for a mistake that was made by someone else.[188][189]

On 14 November, KDU-ČSL endorsed Drahoš.[190] Some candidates appeared at the Festival of Freedom on 17 November to commemorate the Velvet Revolution. Drahoš, Hilšer and Fischer all made speeches, but organisers refused to allow Topolánek or Michal Horáček to take part, stating that they wanted to give a platform to candidates who were in accordance with the values of 17 November. This angered Horáček, who had been a direct participant in the events of 17 November 1989.[191]

Terezie Holovská filed a lawsuit against the candidacies of Hannig, Hilšer, Hynek, Kulhánek and Topolánek, arguing that they should be disqualified because some MPs and Senators had nominated more than one candidate. Holovská had previously sought nomination from MPs but failed to attract sufficient nominations and was disqualified.[192]

Pavel Fischer launched his campaign on 30 November, with the slogan "I know how to do it". Fischer said he wanted to return the Czech Republic to the world map.[193] Topolánek also launched his campaign on the same day, criticising Zeman's policies and calling for an active role in NATO and the EU. He said that "the Czech Republic needs someone who knows how to play hard". Topolánek rejected migrant quotas and adoption of the Euro, though he stated that there was no alternative to the European Union.[194]

December 2017[edit]

On 1 December, Drahoš expressed fears that Russia could influence the election, and met Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka to discuss the matter. He also expressed his belief that Russia influenced the 2017 legislative election. The Security Information Service (BIS) released a statement dismissing Drahoš' claims.[195] Zeman criticised Drahoš for spreading "conspiracy theories".[196] Topolánek commented that Drahoš had shown he did not know much about politics, and called for a televised debate between him and Drahoš, as that couldn't be manipulated by foreign propaganda.[197] On 9 December, Zeman appeared at a Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) conference and received indirect support from the party.

On 13 December, the Supreme Administrative Court rejected Holovská's lawsuit.[198] The court confirmed that MPs and Senators could sign only one candidacy, but ruled that all candidates could participate in the election.[199]

Horáček attacked the nomination of Communist MP Zdeněk Ondráček to head the Permament Commission of the Chamber of Deputies of oversight over the General Inspection of Security Forces. Ondráček had been a member of the Communist police that attacked demonstrators in 1989. This led Horáček into a Twitter exchange with Topolánek, who also disagreed with Ondráček's nomination but described Horáček's comments as "a theatre". He noted that Ondráček used to be a member of a permanent commission with oversight over the BIS, which was more serious but had received no comment from Horáček. Horáček said that he was running to change things and attacked Topolánek for his past and for his links with former co-worker Marek Dalík. He also noted that Topolánek had attended the birthday party of Zeman's aide Martin Nejedlý. Topolánek called Horáček's argument "pathetic", and mentioned Horáček's involvement in the gambling business.[200] Ondráček was elected on 19 December.[201]

Drahoš and Topolánek started attacking each other during December. Drahoš accused Topolánek's government of under-funding the Czech Academy of Sciences. Topolánek responded that the Academy had 6 billions CZK during his government and cuts for its finances came after he left office.[202] For his part, Topolánek attacked Drahoš over his statement that he would appoint a cabinet supported by the Communists and SPD, describing this as a U-turn, as Drahoš had previously stated the opposite.[203]

On 15 December, Pavel Fischer criticised Zeman for not participating in presidential debates. He sent him a public letter and wanted to meet with him for a head-to-head debate. He also said Zeman's presidential campaign was a "hybrid campaign", as though Zeman had stated that he wouldn't campaign, billboards promoting Zeman's campaign had appeared all over the country. Zeman's spokesman Ovčáček called Fischer "desperate".[204] Fischer himself attracted controversy on 16 December when he stated that he would not appoint a homosexual as a judge to the Constitutional Court. He later apologised for his statement.[205]

On 20 December, Drahoš' team published a post on social media about Václav Klaus's amnesty, which was criticised when it was revealed that Drahoš' team had copied a similar post by Horáček. Drahoš apologised and attributed the mistake to an external creative. Horáček commented that it was not the first time Drahoš had copied his campaign.[206][207]

January 2018[edit]

In January, Czech Television started to broadcast spots of all candidates, except Zeman's who refused to make one.[208] Marek Hilšer attacked Zeman for not participating in debates, suggesting that the debates should feature an empty chair to remind viewers of Zeman's absence.[209]

Mirek Topolánek launched the final phase of his campaign on 3 January, saying that he wanted to be a strong president who "would neither welcome EU migrant quotas, nor beckon to Eastern powers". He also attacked Miloš Zeman and Jiří Drahoš.[210]

The campaign became more aggressive in the days leading up to the first round. Drahoš attacked Topolánek over funding for the Czech Academy of Sciences, accusing Topolánek of trying to destroy and defund the Academy. Topolánek dismissed Drahoš' accusation and stated that cut in funding for the Academy took place after his premiership concluded, supporting his arguments with a graph. Topolánek then suggested that the Academy's problems were due to Drahoš' poor management skills. Drahoš disagreed. Topolánek attacked Drahoš over his campaign manager Jakub Kleindienst, due to his connection to past scandals via his involvement in a company with links to former Minister David Rath.[211] Drahoš defended Kleindiest in interviews.[212] Michal Horáček was accused of financing negative articles about his political rivals, which he denied. Pavel Fischer described Horáček's tactics as "dirty".[213]

Pavel Fischer held a meeting with his supporters on 7 January 2017. His supporters started referring to his presidential campaign as a "Turquoise revolution". Fischer's supporters were very active on social media.[214]

First round[edit]

First round results by district

Before the first round, leaflets were distributed in the city of Ostrava containing false claims that Zeman, as the current president, would automatically progress to the second round of the election, so that his supporters would be absent during the first. Similar messages were also shared on social media. The Ostrava police are investigating the matter as a criminal act.[215]

During the first round, Miloš Zeman was confronted while preparing to cast his vote by a Ukrainian Femen protester who repeatedly screamed "Zeman, Putin's slut", with the same words painted across her bare chest.[216] She was removed from the polling station by security and arrested on a count of disorderly conduct.[217] The protester was later expelled from the country and sentenced by the court to three months of prison with the sentence being suspended for a one-year probation period.[218]

Miloš Zeman and Jiří Drahoš qualified for the second round, with 38.57% and 26.60% of the vote respectively. Drahoš won the most votes in Prague, Prague-West and Prague-East Districts, and from voters abroad. Zeman won the most votes in all other districts of the country.[219]

Second round[edit]

Second round result by district

Drahoš was endorsed by defeated candidates Pavel Fischer, Marek Hilšer, Michal Horáček, Vratislav Kulhánek and Mirek Topolánek. Zeman was endorsed by Petr Hannig. Jiří Hynek said he would publish his endorsement one day before the second round, after the two remaining candidates had answered a questionnaire he would send them. Zeman agreed to participate in debates for the second round.[220][221] Drahoš received endorsements from the Civic Democratic Party and TOP 09.[75][76] Drahoš was considered the slight front-runner in the second round.[222][223][224] Zeman "changed his tone" and emphasized his centrist credentials during the last stretch of the election campaign.[225]

On 15 January, Zeman suggested that he and Drahoš should participate in four debates. Drahoš said that he would participate in only two debates, to spend his time focusing on a personal campaign in regions where he had received fewer votes.[226][227]

Drahoš launched his second round campaign on 16 January 2018. He visited his hometown Jablunkov and was welcomed by his supporters at the Town Hall. Drahoš received a Golden Apple from the mayor of the town and then attended an ice hockey match in Třinec. He was booed by ice hockey fans during the match.[228]Pavel Fischer, Michal Horáček and Marek Hilšer decided to participate in Drahoš' campaign.[229]

The Friends of Miloš Zeman Association published an anti-Drahoš advertisement linking him with support for immigration. Drahoš stated that he did not support immigration and opposed migrant quotas.[230] Zeman himself said that he considered the advertisement useless and believed that it would hurt him and not Drahoš. On the other hand, he defended his supporters and repeated the connection of Drahoš with immigration.[231]

Zeman appeared in a broadcast on TV Nova on 21 January 2018. He said he would prefer a government of ANO 2011 supported by the Social Democrats and the Communist Party. He also stated that he would be less arrogant during his second term. Drahoš on the other hand held meetings with his supporters in Brno and Ostrava.[232]

The candidates faced each other in two head-to-head debates. The first was broadcast on Prima TV on 23 January. The debate was very aggressive and influenced by the loud audience. Zeman was described as more energetic, while Drahoš was said to be faint and visibly nervous. Experts expressed the opinion that Zeman had dominated the debate and appeared as the victor.[233][234][235][236] Drahoš improved his performance during the Czech Television debate on 25 January. The debate was calmer and Drahoš was considered to be less uncertain than during the previous debate. The second debate was considered a tie.[237]

Voting was held on 26 and 27 January 2018. Zeman emerged victorious with 51.37% of the vote to Drahoš's 48.63%,[238] with a turnout of 66.60%, the highest since the 1998 legislative election.

Campaign finance[edit]

No candidate may spend more than 40,000,000 CZK. Candidates who advance to the second round can spend 50,000,000 CZK (around 2,300,000 USD).[239][240]

Candidate Money Raised Money Spent Source
Jiří Drahoš 32,500,000 CZK 36,000,000 CZK [241]
Michal Horáček 26,000,000 CZK 30,000,000 CZK [242]
Miloš Zeman 4,500,000 CZK 17,000,000 CZK [241]
Vratislav Kulhánek 5,900,000 CZK 7,000,000 CZK [242][241]
Pavel Fischer 5,300,000 CZK 5,300,000 CZK [242][241]
Mirek Topolánek 7,600,000 CZK 13,000,000 CZK [242][241]
Marek Hilšer 650,000 CZK 400,000 CZK [242][241]
Jiří Hynek 300,000 CZK 200,000 CZK [242]
Petr Hannig 3,700 CZK 100 CZK [242]

Debates[edit]

The first debate was held on 8 November 2017 at Charles University. Jiří Drahoš, Michal Horáček, Marek Hilšer, Jiří Hynek, Pavel Fischer, Petr Hannig and Mirek Topolánek participated in the debate. Miloš Zeman refused to participate and instead went to Olomouc region to meet with citizens.[243] Topolánek called for defense of Schengen border. Drahoš stated that he wants respect for the rules.[244] Moderator mentioned Drahoš's attack against Topolánek. Topolánek stated that "it was either written by a woman or PR Mage. I forgave Professor whether I ever took it seriously." Audience was allowed to vote who they like the most. Drahoš and Hilšer received the most votes.[245] According to Hospodářské noviny, Topolánek and Hilšer seemed as the most civil candidates.[246]

Seznam News held a presidential debate on 13 November 2017. Topolánek, Drahoš, Horáček, Fischer, Hilšer and Kulhánek participated. Topolánek was considered the winner of the debate.[247] Another debate was held in Liberec on 16 November 2017.[248]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls from 2014 showed Miloš Zeman leading in the first round with between 20% and 48% of the vote. Michal Horáček became his main rival during 2016 but was overtaken by Jiří Drahoš during 2017. Drahoš was leading polls for the second round with a 10% lead in September 2017. The margin narrowed during October and November and Drahoš' lead fluctuated between 0.5% and 4%. Some polls in late January 2018 showed Zeman with a narrow lead.

Results[edit]

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Miloš Zeman Party of Civic Rights 1,985,547 38.57 2,853,390 51.37
Jiří Drahoš Independent, with KDU–ČSL and STAN support 1,369,601 26.60 2,701,206 48.63
Pavel Fischer Independent 526,694 10.23
Michal Horáček Independent 472,643 9.18
Marek Hilšer Independent 454,949 8.84
Mirek Topolánek Independent, with ODS support 221,689 4.31
Jiří Hynek Realists 63,348 1.23
Petr Hannig Party of Common Sense 29,228 0.57
Vratislav Kulhánek Civic Democratic Alliance 24,442 0.47
Invalid/blank votes 29,097 13,031
Total 5,177,238 100 5,567,627 100
Registered voters/turnout 8,366,433 61.92 8,362,987 66.60
Source: Volby

Aftermath[edit]

Zeman said that a narrow victory pleases the most people, and that he respected all people who vote. Zeman confirmed that his second term would be the end of his political career, as the election was "his last political victory that won't be followed by any political defeat."[249] Drahoš conceded defeat and congratulated Zeman. He stated that he would not be leaving politics, telling supporters: "We didn't win but we didn't lose. I want to use the huge amount of energy that shouldn't disappear".[250]

Prime Minister Andrej Babiš congratulated Zeman and said that he had believed that the campaign based on attacks against him could not succeed.[251] Leader of the opposition Petr Fiala also congratulated Zeman, and expressed hope that Zeman would serve the interests of the Czech Republic. The leader of Pirate Party, Ivan Bartoš, stated that he was pleased about the strong support for Jiří Drahoš. SPD leader Tomio Okamura and acting Social Democrat leader Milan Chovanec celebrated the results with Zeman at his election headquarters. Okamura expressed joy at the result, and Chovanec stated that he was glad that Zeman won. Communist Party leader Vojtěch Filip described Zeman's victory as an assurance of stability. KDU–ČSL leader Pavel Bělobrádek expressed hope that Zeman would unify the divided society. Miroslav Kalousek expressed dissatisfaction with the result and stated that the Czech Republic had wasted an opportunity for change.[252] Zeman was also personally congratulated by his predecessor Václav Klaus. Klaus stated that he was glad about the result but afraid that Drahoš' supporters would not accept it. Zeman thanked Klaus for his support and invited him for a drink.[253][254]

By the end of February 2018, the Supreme Administrative Court rejected all of about 70 complaints concerning the regularity of elections as there were no serious mistakes or violation of the election law able to influence the election outcome.[255]

According to a poll conducted by Median, 54.2% of Czech people were satisfied with the result, and 37.5% were dissatisfied.[256]

International reactions[edit]

  •  China - President Xi Jinping congratulated Zeman and stated that he wants to take the strategic partnership between the two countries to a higher level.[257]
  •  European Union - European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker congratulated Zeman and said he was looking forward to working with him. European Council President Donald Tusk also congratulated Zeman on his victory.[258]
  •  France - President Emmanuel Macron congratulated Zeman on 13 February 2018, and highlighted the friendly relations and historical ties between the two countries.[259]
  •  Germany - President Frank-Walter Steinmeier congratulated Zeman and noted the two countries' common history.[260] Chancellor Angela Merkel congratulated Zeman on 1 February 2018.[261]
  •  Israel - Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu personally congratulated Zeman.[262]
  •  Russia - President Vladimir Putin was among the first to congratulate Zeman, saying that the election confirmed Zeman's authority. He expressed readiness for constructive cooperation on bilateral relations.[263]
  •  Slovakia - Prime Minister Robert Fico was the first international politician to congratulate Zeman, calling him an intelligent and experienced politician and saying that he was pleased with the result.[264] President Andrej Kiska congratulated Zeman and expressed hope that relations between the two countries would stay close. He also invited Zeman to Slovakia.[265]

Analysis[edit]

Observers compared the presidential race to previous elections such as the 2016 Austrian,[266][267]2016 United States[267][268][269][270][271][272] and 2017 French[267][268] presidential elections, which saw a liberal internationalist running against a national populist.[268][269][272][273] Though both sides seemed to have roughly equal support among Czech voters, the national populism was represented by clearer ideology and strong leaders, while the liberal message was fragmented and the candidates did not have common themes or language, apart from agreeing on the need for an "anti-Zeman" candidate.[274][275][276]

According to analysts, important factors in Zeman's victory were his strong debate performances and the closeness of the first round results, the latter helping mobilize his base. Drahoš was estimated to have lost about a quarter of his voters as a result of the televised debates.[275][277][278] Analysts also pointed out that the support for Zeman came from districts with high levels of poverty, and also from regions dominated by traditional industries, agriculture and the construction industry, while regions dominated by IT services and public administration supported Drahoš.[275][279] Zeman's strident opposition to immigration also worked in his favor,[280][278] though his major opponents Drahoš and Horáček also voiced opposition to immigration and the EU's migrant quotas, while all but one candidate criticised illegal immigration to Europe.[281]

Analysts as well as politicians saw the close election results as an illustration of the deep divisions present in Czech society.[278][282][283]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Prezidentské volby 2018 - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 2017-12-12. 
  2. ^ "ANALÝZA: Zemanovy šance na obhajobu zvyšuje soupeření Babiše se Sobotkou". iDNES.cz. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  3. ^ "Miloš Zeman válcuje soupeře". Deník.cz. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Průzkum: Zeman jasně vede. Horáček druhý". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  5. ^ "Bude Zeman znovu kandidovat? Víme, co rozhodne". Reflex.cz. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  6. ^ "Průzkumy i sázkové kanceláře se mýlily v případě Trumpa i Hofera. Je dobré teď vsadit na Zemana?". Reflex.cz. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  7. ^ "Echo24.cz má prý zprávy z Hradu, které Zemanovy fanoušky nepotěší. Týkají se kandidatury v příštích volbách". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  8. ^ "Miloš Zeman oficiálně oznámil kandidaturu na prezidenta - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Miloši, Miloši! Premiér Sobotka to prý zkouší na Zemana, protože se bojí Babiše. Noviny slyšely více". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  10. ^ televize, Česká. "Paroubek: Kdyby se dnes volil prezident, Zeman vyhraje v prvním kole". ČT24 (in Czech). Retrieved 18 April 2017. 
  11. ^ Honzejk, Petr (18 April 2017). "Jiné čtení průzkumů: Co když Zeman vyhraje už v prvním kole?". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 18 April 2017. 
  12. ^ "Češi si začnou volit prezidenta 12. ledna. Předseda Senátu vybral dřívější termín | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  13. ^ "Češi budou volit prezidenta 12. a 13. ledna". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  14. ^ "O post prezidenta se chce utkat 19 kandidátů, někteří budou nejspíše z boje vyřazeni - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  15. ^ ČTK, Echo24, (10 November 2017). "O prezidenta může usilovat jen 9 lidí, zbylé přihlášky vnitro vyřadilo". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  16. ^ "Vylosovaná čísla, kterými budou označeny hlasovací lístky pro volbu prezidenta republiky - Ministerstvo vnitra České republiky". www.mvcr.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  17. ^ Inauguration day is set as the last possible date for person to become President.
  18. ^ "Bomba na obzoru? Mirek Topolánek skutečně zvažuje kandidaturu na Hrad". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  19. ^ "Václav Klaus ml.: Kandidát na prezidenta? Říká si o to Topolánek". Reflex.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "Mirek Topolánek potvrdil svou kandidaturu na prezidenta". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 5 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017. 
  21. ^ "Topolánek podle expertů způsobil zlom v kampani. Ostatní kandidáty může donutit k silnějším výrokům". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 19 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  22. ^ a b "Prohlášení Soukromníků k návštěvě Mirka Topolánka". www.soukromnici.cz. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  23. ^ "Do boje o Hrad může jít 9 kandidátů. 11 uchazečů nesplnilo podmínky". Lidovky.cz. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  24. ^ "Horáček: Prezident nevládne, to dělá vláda. Prezident je vrchní komentátor a to už dělám nejmíň třicet let". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). 23 May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  25. ^ "Horáček se chystá na volbu prezidenta. Už je to na víc než 99 procent". iDNES.cz. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
  26. ^ "Horáček představil oficiální stránku kampaně - Volba prezidenta 2018". Volba prezidenta 2018 (in Czech). 21 November 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  27. ^ "Horáček besedoval na gymnáziu v Sušici. Přišel jediný zájemce". iDNES.cz. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  28. ^ "Horáček: Zeman tolik hlasů nedostane, když přijde lepší nabídka než Schwarzenberg - Seznam Zprávy". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  29. ^ "Bývalý diplomat a Havlův poradce Fischer bude kandidovat na prezidenta". iDNES.cz. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  30. ^ "Bývalý diplomat a Havlův poradce Pavel Fischer chce kandidovat na prezidenta. Podporu našel mezi senátory". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  31. ^ "Jiří Hynek podal kandidaturu na prezidenta. Má podporu 22 poslanců". Lidovky.cz. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  32. ^ a b "Realisté chtějí za prezidenta Jiřího Hynka, šéfa Asociace obranného průmyslu". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  33. ^ "Hudebník Hannig bude kandidovat na prezidenta. Podpořil ho extremista Adam B. Bartoš". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 19 July 2017. 
  34. ^ a b "Dalším uchazečem o post prezidenta je producent Hannig". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 19 July 2017. 
  35. ^ "Hannig může kandidovat na Hrad. Pomohli mu i noví poslanci". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  36. ^ "Exšéf Škody Auto Kulhánek ohlásil kandidaturu na prezidenta. Do boje ho vyslala ODA". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  37. ^ a b c "Drahoš už překročil 100 tisíc podpisů, Horáček má 80 tisíc. Hilšer zatím ztrácí". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 24 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  38. ^ "SPO-Z: Miloš Zeman se stal čestným předsedou strany". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  39. ^ "Zeman řekl svým příznivcům, že bude znovu kandidovat na Hrad". iDNES.cz. 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  40. ^ a b "Prezident Zeman jde znovu do toho. A my jsme zjistili, co před volbami chystá". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 20 April 2017. 
  41. ^ "Kandidáti na prezidenta České republiky ve volbách 2018 - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 2018-01-10. 
  42. ^ "Umím jít s kůží na trh, říká nový kandidát na Hrad. Začal sbírat podpisy". iDNES.cz. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  43. ^ "Pražská kavárna má nového kandidáta na Hrad: Je to svlékající se aktivista!". Expres.cz. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  44. ^ a b "Drahoš oznámil kandidaturu na prezidenta" [Drahos announced his candidacy for the president]. Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  45. ^ a b Kreč, Luboš (6 November 2017). "Výmluvný a razantní expremiér s řadou afér chce být prezidentem. Topolánek už sehnal potřebné podpisy senátorů" [Eloquent and penetrative former Prime Minister with a series of scandals wants to be president. Topolanek has already got the necessary signatures from the senators]. Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  46. ^ "Nový prezidentský kandidát? Předseda Akademie věd Jiří Drahoš zkusí boj o Hrad | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 15 October 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  47. ^ ČTK, Echo24, (10 November 2017). "Ministerstvo ho vyřadilo z boje o Hrad. Toman je však přesvědčen, že podpisy měl". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  48. ^ "Na Hrad chce i "mlsná tygřice". Alchymistka, co zná Bartoše, loví poslance". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  49. ^ "Výzva k odstranění závad na kandidátní listině". www.mvcr.cz (in Czech). 15 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017. 
  50. ^ "Nový kandidát na prezidenta: Invaze a nechutná zvěrstva muslimů. Arogantní lhář Zeman. Diktátor Putin, soudružka Merkelová a úžasný Trump. Zastal jsem se obětí romské tlupy..." Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  51. ^ Švec, Michael (6 November 2017). "Záhada neznámého prezidentského kandidáta vyřešena. Je jím třiasedmdesátiletý muž, který vnitru odevzdal jen jeden poslanecký podpis". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  52. ^ "Nadával umělcům kvůli šaškárnám s Bradym, teď ohlásil kandidaturu na prezidenta. Vysmál se falešnému karbaníkovi i všemocnému kobliháři". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  53. ^ "Nečekaná zpráva: Z boje o Hrad odstoupil jeden z prezidentských kandidátů. Proč? | EuroZprávy.cz". Eurozprávy. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  54. ^ 2016, SPR-RSČ. "Volba prezidenta republiky". Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  55. ^ "Miroslav Sládek jde do prezidentské kandidatury". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  56. ^ "Z prezidentské volby odstoupil známý kandidát. S ohledem na volby nemá smysl kandidovat, tvrdí". Eurozprávy. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  57. ^ "Na prezidenta chce kandidovat i zadlužený podnikatel Boštík". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  58. ^ "Vedení lidovců podpořilo v boji o Hrad Jiřího Drahoše". Deník.cz (in Czech). 14 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  59. ^ a b c "Starostové vyzvali demokratické strany k podpoře Drahoše" [Mayors have called on democratic parties to support Drahos]. Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  60. ^ "SPD nepřímo podpořila Zemana. Hnutí se vyslovilo pro přesun ambasády do Jeruzaléma". Euro.cz (in Czech). 9 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  61. ^ "SPO podporuje v prezidentských volbách Miloše Zemana". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  62. ^ "Babiš bude na Hrad volit Zemana. Nekrade, drží slovo, řekl premiér". iDNES.cz. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  63. ^ a b "ODS podpořila na Hrad Topolánka, vlastního kandidáta nepostaví" [The ODS supportes Topolánek Castle and will not Promote its own Candidate]. Novinky (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  64. ^ "Nový předseda Svobodných: Miloš Zeman je prezidentem těch, kterým už leze krkem, jak jimi "lepší lidé" opovrhují. Tu máte, náfukové, ať vám v kavárně praskne cévka". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 7 January 2018. 
  65. ^ "Pospíšil: Drahoš má větší šanci oslovit antizemanovský tábor než Topolánek". iDNES.cz. 7 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  66. ^ "Předseda SZ Stropnický představil v DR strategii strany k prezidentské volbě". Strana zelených (in Czech). 1 June 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2017. 
  67. ^ "Dotazy na kandidáty na prezidenta České republiky". Moravané - Politická strana (in Czech). 24 November 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  68. ^ "KSČM podpoří v prezidentské volbě kandidáta, co s ní bude mluvit". www.ceskenoviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  69. ^ "Piráti kandidáta na prezidenta stavět nebudou". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  70. ^ "Sociální demokraté svého kandidáta do boje o Hrad nepostaví". iDNES.cz. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  71. ^ "ČSSD nepodpoří konkrétního kandidáta na prezidenta. Stranická podpora se přeceňuje, tvrdí Chovanec". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 22 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  72. ^ "Další rozkol v ČSSD? Foldyna se kvůli Zemanovi postavil předsednictvu. A poslal důrazný vzkaz". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  73. ^ "Hašek a Zimola chtějí zachránit ČSSD. Zakládají platformu, podpoří Zemana". iDNES.cz. 4 January 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 
  74. ^ "Mladí socialisté by poslali Drahoše na Hrad hned v prvním kole. Zeman je třetí | Aktuálně.cz". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 9 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  75. ^ a b "Drahoš může počítat s podporou TOP 09 - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  76. ^ a b "ODS se rozhodla podpořit na Hrad Drahoše, odmítla menšinovou vládu ANO". iDNES.cz. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  77. ^ "Škromach chce kandidovat na prezidenta. Konec srandy, beru to vážně, tvrdí | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  78. ^ "Halík zvažuje kandidaturu na Hrad. Nezříkám se zodpovědnosti, uvedl". iDNES.cz. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  79. ^ "Klaus: Pokud bude kandidovat na prezidenta Halík, budu muset i já | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  80. ^ "Halík: Církev mi kandidaturu nezakázala, ani nemohla, Zeman nemluví pravdu". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  81. ^ "Halík, Horáček. Svěrák, Sedláček. Kroměřížská výzva hledá kandidáta na prezidenta". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  82. ^ "Zvažuji kandidaturu na prezidenta, Zeman volby znovu nevyhraje, říká Michal Horáček". Aktuálně.TV - Jen to, co musíte vidět. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  83. ^ "Čtenáři serveru Lidovky.cz by za prezidenta volili Horáčka. V anketě porazil Zemana | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  84. ^ "Předvolební průzkum: Zemana nejvíce ohrožuje Horáček". 28 June 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  85. ^ "Na vládě protestoval proti Putinovi, teď chce nahradit Zemana. Lékař Marek Hilšer zahájil kampaň". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  86. ^ "Nevidím nebezpečí, na co ploty, říká lékař Hilšer. Chce porazit Zemana". iDNES.cz. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  87. ^ "Horáček: Cítím ohrožení toho, co mám rád a čeho si vážím". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  88. ^ "Nástupce Zemana? Horáček bude kandidovat". TÝDEN.cz. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  89. ^ Bartoníček, Radek (3 November 2016). "Horáček: Nebudu chtít nominaci od politické strany, bez podpisů občanů by boj o prezidenta neměl smysl". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  90. ^ "Zneužili státní svátek a zahájili předvolební kampaň, opřel se Zeman do Gazdíka s Horáčkem". Rozhlas.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  91. ^ "Horáček: Jsem mnohem lepší než Schwarzenberg, umím jazyky. On nepochopil, co udělal špatně". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  92. ^ "Horáček na námluvách. Zemanův vyzyvatel navštívil lidovce i Starosty". iDNES.cz. 1 July 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  93. ^ "Schwarzenberg o útoku Horáčka: "Valchař" je zklamaný, že jsem ho nepodpořil". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  94. ^ "Schwarzenberg se ostře pustil do Horáčka. Čtení, které vás zvedne ze židle | Globe24.cz" (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  95. ^ "Schwarzenberg: Horáček na Hrad? To není ideální kandidát". TÝDEN.cz. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  96. ^ "V prezidentské anketě drtivě vede Pánek. Má to ale dvě ale - Echo24.cz". Echo24 (in Czech). 24 December 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  97. ^ "Přípravy na volbu prezidenta zamrzly. Strany vyčkávají, co udělá Miloš Zeman - Seznam Zprávy". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 16 January 2017. 
  98. ^ "Zeman bude znovu bojovat o Hrad, tvrdí jeho spolupracovník". iDNES.cz. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  99. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Horáček představil tým dvanácti poradců. Jsou v něm Drábová, Vášáryová i cyklista König". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). 9 February 2017. 
  100. ^ "Horáčkovi bude na Hrad pomáhat Drábová a Vášáryová". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  101. ^ "Zeman poradil SPO, ať jde do voleb jako podpora Okamury. Ten je proti". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  102. ^ "Prezident Zeman byl na prohlídce v nemocnici Na Bulovce". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  103. ^ "Poslední rok Zemana. Soupeři začali sbírat podpisy, sehnat 50 tisíc bude těžké - Seznam Zprávy". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  104. ^ "Necítím se jako favorit, řekl Zeman při oznámení kandidatury". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  105. ^ "Přesvědčila mě podpora lidí, řekl Zeman. Debatám s protivníky se vyhne". iDNES.cz. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  106. ^ "Zeman se nechce účastnit předvolebních debat s protikandidáty. Horáčkovi se to nelíbí". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  107. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Karel Štogl: Za zády ho měl Tvrdík, Sobotka i Rath". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  108. ^ "Štogl na hrad. Tam ještě nebyl". www.pressreader.com. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  109. ^ "Exšéf škodovky nebo úředník z ČSSD. Kdo porazí Zemana?". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  110. ^ a b "Drahoš kandiduje na Hrad. Politici to uvítali, Ovčáček ho začal urážet". iDNES.cz. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  111. ^ "Drahoš má mezi předsedy stran podporu. Ovčáček ho kritizuje - Echo24.cz". Echo24 (in Czech). 28 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  112. ^ "Ovčáčka nečtu, je to pod úroveň, řekl kandidát na prezidenta Drahoš". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  113. ^ "Drahoš: Komunisté adorují Stalina, vládu s nimi bych odmítl. Sbírat podpisy mi pomohou pěvecké sbory". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje (in Czech). 30 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  114. ^ "Horáček začal sbírat podpisy pro prezidentskou volbu. Favoritem nejsem, říká". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 16 April 2017. 
  115. ^ Bohuslavová, Renáta (24 April 2017). "Zemanovu nekampaň zahájila manželka Ivana. Podpis a rychle pryč". Echo24 (in Czech). Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  116. ^ "Zeman odpálil svůj šrapnel. Řekl, že má šéfku volebního týmu: Ivanu Zemanovou". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 20 April 2017. 
  117. ^ "Prezidentský kandidát Drahoš začne sbírat podpisy od pondělí". Deník.cz (in Czech). 21 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  118. ^ "Drahoš začal sbírat podpisy, už má 500 dobrovolníků". Echo24 (in Czech). 24 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  119. ^ "Drahoš už má mluvčí, redaktorku ČT Lenku Pastorčákovou". Echo24 (in Czech). 22 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  120. ^ "Michal Horáček má prý hotovo. Může kandidovat na Hrad". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 6 May 2017. 
  121. ^ "Sobotkova pomsta: ČSSD chce vlastního kandidáta proti Zemanovi". Echo24 (in Czech). 16 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  122. ^ "Politická bomba: ČSSD zvažuje vlastního kandidáta na prezidenta. Hrad už reaguje". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  123. ^ "Strategie z ČSSD: Postavit prezidentského kandidáta, který Zemana neporazí, ale oslabí, aby nepostoupil do druhého kola". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  124. ^ "Na koaliční krizi prodělá ČSSD i ANO. Po volbách hrozí chaos, varuje politolog Jelínek". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  125. ^ "Uznávaný sociolog Herzmann pronáší vážná slova k protestům na Václaváku: Může to vypadat jako mobilizace veřejnosti, ale ve skutečnosti..." Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  126. ^ "KOMENTÁŘ: Proč Zeman nejspíš už nebude prezidentem – Jiří Pehe". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  127. ^ "Sobotkovi kandidáti na Hrad: Štěch či Zaorálek. S Babišem do vlády už ne". iDNES.cz. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017. 
  128. ^ "Zemanovi kvůli vládní krizi mírně klesly preference". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 28 May 2017. 
  129. ^ "Unavený Zeman. V Číně vrávorá, podpírají jej, použil i vozík". Echo24 (in Czech). 17 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  130. ^ "Zeman na summitu NATO vynechal projevy státníků, u kterých se stálo". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  131. ^ "Unavený Zeman míří do Vietnamu. Musí upravit program, apeluje jeho lékař". Echo24 (in Czech). 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  132. ^ "Tohle není Miloš Zeman, naznačuje temně Tomáš Zdechovský. Ten se vrátil z Bílého domu a sděluje nové informace. Ať radši nečte Petr Mach". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  133. ^ "Kubera: Zákon se změkčí, v zimě vyhánět kuřáky na ulici je zdravotní nesmysl". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  134. ^ "Zeman je na tom hodně špatně, duševně slábne, možná nebude kandidovat, říká diplomat Kolář". video.info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  135. ^ "Miloš Zeman zdravotně odchází. Nepoznávám ho, tvrdí europoslanec". Expres.cz. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  136. ^ "Zeman je unavený a má mít volno, řekl osobní lékař. Mynářova úleva nestačí". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  137. ^ "Hrad poprvé přiznává, že prezident Zeman není úplně ve formě. Zmáhá ho náročný program". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  138. ^ "To není pan farář? Drahoš v Opavě rozpačitě rozjel prezidentskou kampaň". iDNES.cz. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  139. ^ "Kalouskův cíl: dvouciferný výsledek, euro co nejdřív a Drahoš na Hradě". iDNES.cz. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  140. ^ "Drahoš na Hrad, ozývá se stále hlasitěji od lidovců. S kandidátem na prezidenta čekají na starosty". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  141. ^ "Horáček má splněno, jako první nasbíral 50 000 hlasů ke kandidatuře". Echo24 (in Czech). 1 June 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  142. ^ "Horáček už má 50 tisíc podpisů, rychle přibývají i Zemanovi a Drahošovi". iDNES.cz. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  143. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Jiří Drahoš už sehnal 25 tisíc podpisů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  144. ^ "Senátoři podpoří mou prezidentskou kandidaturu, hlásí exšéf Rusnokova kabinetu. Stačí 10 podpisů". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  145. ^ "Drahoš odmítá Horáčkovu nabídku: Jsme z ní v rozpacích". Echo24 (in Czech). 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  146. ^ "Horáček chce sbírat podpisy i pro soupeře, od Drahoše ale dostal košem". iDNES.cz. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  147. ^ "Prezidentský kandidát, lékař Marek Hilšer: Miloš Zeman na svoji funkci fyzicky nemá". Forum24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  148. ^ "Exšéf Škodovky Kulhánek bude kandidovat na prezidenta, stojí za ním ODA". iDNES.cz. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  149. ^ "Bývalý šéf Škody Auto Kulhánek kandiduje na prezidenta za ODA". www.ceskenoviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  150. ^ "Já žádnou agenturu na kampaň nepotřebuji, ujišťoval Michal Horáček. A teď si jednu najal..." Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  151. ^ "Lidovci a Starostové potvrdili koalici, v boji o Hrad podpoří Drahoše". iDNES.cz. 4 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  152. ^ "Zemanova politika, opačné chování? Petr Hannig chce být novým prezidentem". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  153. ^ "Další muž v boji o Hrad: Hudebníka a věčného kandidáta do sněmovny Hanniga podpoří krajní pravice". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  154. ^ televize, Česká. "Kubera nasbíral v Senátu podpisy pro kandidaturu na Hrad". ČT24 (in Czech). Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  155. ^ "Zeman má dostatek podpisů pro kandidaturu, hlásí Veleba. Zdraví prý není překážkou". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  156. ^ "Drahoš i Hilšer dál sbírají podpisy na Hrad, Zeman i Horáček jich mají dost". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  157. ^ "Zeman má podpisy pro opětovnou kandidaturu". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  158. ^ "Drahoš má už 40 tisíc podpisů, do Mladé Boleslavi přivezl Grygara i dalekohled". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  159. ^ "Drahoš v námořnickém děkoval za 78 321 podpisů pro boj o Hrad". iDNES.cz. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  160. ^ "Zastupuje zbrojaře, teď chce Hynek kandidovat na prezidenta". iDNES.cz. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  161. ^ "Zemanovo zdraví? To není problém prezidenta, ale novinářů, popíchl Ovčáček". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  162. ^ "Zeman na Živitelce nazval dotace na snižování výroby mléka zvěrstvem". iDNES.cz. 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  163. ^ "Podnikatel Boštík chce kandidovat na prezidenta. Mám 63 tisíc podpisů, tvrdí". iDNES.cz. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  164. ^ "Dobýt hrad chce i podnikatel Vladimír Boštík z Orlickoústecka". Orlický deník (in Czech). 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  165. ^ "Kandidovat na prezidenta chce bývalý velvyslanec Fischer". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  166. ^ "Uprchlíky by Fischer přijal, dal by si pozor jmenovat premiérem stíhaného". iDNES.cz. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  167. ^ "Drahoš podpořil přijetí eura. Má 110 tisíc podpisů, pomáhá mu i Drábová". iDNES.cz. 10 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  168. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Jiří Drahoš ukončuje sběr podpisů. Na kontě má již 110 tisíc podpisů". Dobryprezident.cz (in Czech). 10 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  169. ^ "Dalším prezidentským kandidátem je Jiří Hynek, získal podpisy poslanců". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 October 2017. 
  170. ^ "Robejškův prezidentský kandidát má vystaráno. Kandidaturu mu podepsali poslanci pěti stran". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 17 October 2017. 
  171. ^ "Počet prezidentských uchazečů se dále rozrůstá, podpisy poslanců má i Kulhánek". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 18 October 2017. 
  172. ^ "První žena chce na Hrad, Hilšer získal podporu od senátorů". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  173. ^ "Jdu do toho, abych vyhrál, řekl Drahoš a odevzdal 142 tisíc podpisů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 3 November 2017. 
  174. ^ "Půjde Topolánek do boje o Hrad?". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 4 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  175. ^ "Topolánek na Hrad? Bývalý premiér usiluje o podpisy senátorů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  176. ^ "Nejzkorumpovanější premiér, zaútočil Babiš na Topolánka kandidujícího na Hrad". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  177. ^ "Topolánkova kandidatura? To je špatný vtip, ohradil se Drahoš". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  178. ^ ČTK, Echo24, (6 November 2017). "Topolánek může kandidovat na Hrad. Získal potřebné podpisy senátorů". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  179. ^ "Ohrozí Topolánek Zemana a Drahoše? Podle některých politologů má šanci na druhé kolo". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  180. ^ "Má Topolánek v boji o Hrad reálnou šanci? Politologové se neshodnou | EuroZprávy.cz". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  181. ^ "Favorité voleb? Zeman s Drahošem, Topolánek však je už třetí". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 8 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  182. ^ "Zeman bude znovu kandidovat, sesbíral 113 tisíc podpisů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  183. ^ "Prezident Zeman má pro kandidaturu na Hrad 113 038, oznámila jeho žena". iDNES.cz. 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  184. ^ "Šanci na Hrad má maximálně devět lidí, zbylí nesplňují podmínky". iDNES.cz. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  185. ^ "Kandiduji kvůli Zemanovu dobrému jménu, vysvětlil Topolánek". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  186. ^ Cápová, Michaela (7 November 2017). ""Jdu do toho, vyprovokoval mě Zeman útokem na ústavu," říká Topolánek ke kandidatuře". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  187. ^ "Strůjce úspěchu Pirátů Horák nastoupil do Topolánkova týmu". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 9 November 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2017. 
  188. ^ "Vnitro se pře s právníky, zda zákonodárce může podpořit víc kandidátů na prezidenta". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  189. ^ "Experti tepou vnitro. Topolánek může přijít o prezidentskou kandidaturu". iDNES.cz. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  190. ^ "Vedení KDU-ČSL podpořilo v souboji o Hrad Jiřího Drahoše". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 14 November 2017. 
  191. ^ "Festival svobody cenzuroval kandidáty. Horáčka a Topolánka nepustil ke slovu - Echo24.cz". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 17 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  192. ^ "Na soud dorazila žaloba na zrušení prezidentské kandidatury Hilšera, Topolánka, Hynka, Kulhánka a Hanniga". HlídacíPes.org (in Czech). 29 November 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2017. 
  193. ^ "Vím, jak na to, řekl při představení kampaně kandidát na prezidenta Fischer". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  194. ^ "Topolánek odmítl Zemanovu politiku "všech azimutů", euro i migrační kvóty". iDNES.cz. 30 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017. 
  195. ^ "Drahoš se bojí ovlivnění voleb". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  196. ^ "Drahoš šíří konspirační teorie, odmítl Zeman riziko ovlivnění voleb". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  197. ^ "Vrcholná politika není pro chovance klášterní školy, vzkázal Topolánek Drahošovi". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 1 December 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017. 
  198. ^ "Nejvyšší správní soud odmítl stížnost na prezidentské kandidáty". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  199. ^ "Soud odmítl žalobu na zpochybnění prezidentských kandidatur". iDNES.cz. 13 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017. 
  200. ^ "Topolánek a Horáček se tvrdě hádají. Řeší Dalíka, Nejedlého i "krvavé" peníze". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  201. ^ "Komunista Ondráček byl zvolen předsedou komise pro kontrolu GIBS". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 19 December 2017. 
  202. ^ "Drahoš na mě útočí, stěžuje si Topolánek | EuroZprávy.cz". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  203. ^ "Topolánek zaútočil na Drahoše. "Není zralý," tvrdí kvůli vládě s podporou KSČM a SPD". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  204. ^ "Vedete hybridní kampaň, napsal v dopise Fischer Zemanovi. Zoufalství, reagoval Hrad". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  205. ^ "Homosexuála bych ústavním soudcem nejmenoval, řekl kandidát Fischer. Za výrok se omluvil". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 16 December 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017. 
  206. ^ "Drahoš opsal Horáčkovy citace a sklidil posměch na sociálních sítích". iDNES.cz. 20 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  207. ^ "Drahoš opsal status od Horáčka. Kreativec byl moc kreativní, omlouvá se mluvčí". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  208. ^ "10 dnů do voleb: Česká televize začíná vysílat spoty prezidentských kandidátů, Zeman svůj nedodal". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 3 January 2018. 
  209. ^ "Hilšer chce prázdnou židli pro Zemana. Bojí se konfrontace, říká". iDNES.cz. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 3 January 2018. 
  210. ^ "Zeman je slabý prezident, nemocný člověk, kritizoval svého soka Topolánek". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 3 January 2018. 
  211. ^ "Drahošův tým vede člověk, který figuroval ve firmě zapletené do kauzy Rath". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2018-01-10. 
  212. ^ jh, red, (5 January 2018). "Předvolební kampaň hodně přitvrdila. Drahoš s Topolánkem jdou po sobě". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 5 January 2018. 
  213. ^ "Sponzoroval Horáček negativní příspěvky o svých soupeřích? Kandidát nařčení odmítá". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 5 January 2018. 
  214. ^ "Pavla Fischera dostaneme na Hrad tyrkysovou revolucí, slibovali v Brně jeho příznivci". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 7 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018. 
  215. ^ ""Zeman automaticky postupuje do druhého kola." Letáky vyšetřuje ostravská policie jako dezinformace". Aktualne.cz. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  216. ^ "Topless woman shouts 'Zeman - Putin's slut' at Czech president during vote". Reuters. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  217. ^ "Na prezidenta se hnala polonahá žena. Zeman je Putinova děvka, křičela". iDnes. 
  218. ^ ČTK (14 January 2018). "Aktivistka, která vyběhla k Zemanovi, dostala tříměsíční podmínku a bude vyhoštěna". Lidovky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  219. ^ "Výsledky voleb v České republice". iDnes. Retrieved 14 January 2018. 
  220. ^ "Zeman přijal výzvu Drahoše, půjde do debaty". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  221. ^ "Poražení kandidáti vyjadřují podporu Drahošovi". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  222. ^ "Expert: Drahoš jde do druhého kola jako mírný favorit, může získat 55 procent hlasů". Lidovky.cz (in Czech). 13 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  223. ^ "Prezidentské drama: Zeman favoritem prvního kola, v druhém je jím Drahoš". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  224. ^ "ANALÝZA: Drahoš drží trumfy v souboji se Zemanem, Babiš si toho všiml". iDNES.cz. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  225. ^ "Czechs Reelect Populist, Russia-Friendly President In Tight Race". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 28 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  226. ^ "Půjdu jen do dvou debat, kvůli kampani nemám na více čas, řekl Drahoš". iDNES.cz. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  227. ^ "Zeman chce jít hned do čtyř televizních soubojů, Drahoš trvá na dvou". iDNES.cz. 15 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  228. ^ "Drahoš začal objíždět republiku, na hokeji v Třinci ho vypískali". iDNES.cz. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  229. ^ "Fischer, Horáček i Hilšer podpoří Drahoše v kampani v Brně, Praze a Ostravě". Deník.cz (in Czech). 19 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  230. ^ "Stop imigrantům a Drahošovi, hlásá inzerát, který se objevil v denících". iDNES.cz. 18 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  231. ^ "Hájím své podporovatele, řekl Zeman o "protidrahošovském" inzerátu". iDNES.cz. 18 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  232. ^ "Zeman by preferoval menšinovou vládu ANO podporovanou ČSSD a komunisty". iDNES.cz. 21 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  233. ^ ""Zeman drsný kantor, Drahoš školený žák." Redaktoři glosovali první debatu". iDNES.cz. 23 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  234. ^ "Zeman se s Drahošem hádal o migraci. Babiše premiérem jmenuje v únoru". iDNES.cz. 23 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  235. ^ "Zeman dominoval, Drahoš byl nervózní, moderátor mdlý, všimli si experti". iDNES.cz. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  236. ^ "KOMENTÁŘ: První hradní duel: Jak Zeman vyhrál a Drahoš ještě neprohrál". iDNES.cz. 24 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  237. ^ "Drahoš se zlepšil, ale debata v ČT neměla poraženého, míní politologové". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  238. ^ "Výsledky voleb v České republice". iDnes. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  239. ^ "Poslanci schválili limity na volební kampaně, strany nebudou moci utratit více než 90 miliónů". Novinky.cz. Novinky.cz. Retrieved 8 January 2018. 
  240. ^ "U prezidentské kampaně chybí limity pro sponzory. 'Musí tu fungovat veřejná kontrola,' říká politolog". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 8 January 2018. 
  241. ^ a b c d e f "Nejvíc na volby vybral Drahoš a Horáček. Zemanova "nekampaň" stála 17 miliónů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  242. ^ a b c d e f g "Topolánek v prosinci získal na kampaň více peněz než Drahoš, na Horáčka přesto nemá". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 3 January 2018. 
  243. ^ Cápová, Michaela (8 November 2017). "První souboj prezidentských kandidátů. Podívat se přišel Babiš i Tonda Blaník". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  244. ^ "PŘÍMÝ PŘENOS: Musíme hájit vnější schengenskou hranici, řekl Topolánek". iDNES.cz. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  245. ^ "Hrad by to chtělo vydezinfikovat, řekl Horáček v debatě kandidátů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 8 November 2017. 
  246. ^ Wirnitzer, Jan (8 November 2017). "V první debatě kandidátů na prezidenta bodoval Drahoš, Topolánek bavil. Zeman mezitím vedl nepřiznanou kampaň na Olomoucku". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 9 November 2017. 
  247. ^ "Prezidentští kandidáti debatovali na Seznamu. O Rusku i Zemanovi". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  248. ^ "Latentní rasismus v nás je, řekl Topolánek v debatě kandidátů na Hrad". iDNES.cz. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017. 
  249. ^ "Zeman slaví těsnou výhru, volební účast byla rekordní". TÝDEN.cz. 27 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  250. ^ "Drahoš pogratuloval Zemanovi. Ve veřejném životě zůstane". Euro.cz (in Czech). 27 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  251. ^ "Gratulace z domova i ze zahraničí. Zemanovi poblahopřál Putin i Kiska, Brusel mlčí". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  252. ^ "Fiala gratuloval Zemanovi, doufá, že bude sloužit zájmům ČR". www.ceskenoviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  253. ^ "Klaus přišel pogratulovat Zemanovi. Obává se, že poražení výsledek nepřijmou". Deník.cz (in Czech). 27 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  254. ^ "Klaus přišel blahopřát Zemanovi. Obává se, že poražení výsledek nepřijmou". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  255. ^ "Zvolení Zemana je definitivní, soud zamítl všechny stížnosti". Echo24.cz (in Czech). ECHO24, ČTK. 21 February 2018. Retrieved 7 March 2018. 
  256. ^ "Průzkum: Zeman vyhovuje velké části nevoličů. Drahoš byl přijatelný jen pro každého desátého". Lidovky.cz (in Czech). 30 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  257. ^ "Čínský prezident pogratuloval Zemanovi ke znovuzvolení a nabídl upevnění strategického partnerství". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  258. ^ "Zemanova blahopřání z čela EU. Ke znovuzvolení mu pogratulovali Juncker i Tusk". Lidovky.cz (in Czech). 29 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  259. ^ "Hrad: Prezident republiky obdržel gratulaci od francouzského prezidenta". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 13 February 2018. 
  260. ^ "Zemanovi pogratuloval německý prezident i Putin. Merkelová nereagovala". Deník.cz (in Czech). 29 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  261. ^ "Hrad: Prezident republiky obdržel gratulaci od Angely Merkelové". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 13 February 2018. 
  262. ^ "Zeman jmenoval soudce se zpožděním. Izraelský premiér se nepřerušuje, vysvětlil". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2018. 
  263. ^ Krupka, Jaroslav (28 January 2018). "Putin gratuloval Zemanovi, podle něj prosazuje touhy českého národa". Deník.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  264. ^ Krupka, Jaroslav (27 January 2018). "Fico gratuloval Zemanovi k obhájení prezidentského mandátu". Deník.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  265. ^ "Fico je rád, že vyhral Zeman. Kiska ho pozval na Slovensko". HN Online (in Slovak). Retrieved 30 January 2018. 
  266. ^ Bret, Cyrille (23 January 2018). "Czech presidential election: A vote on Europe". New Eastern Europe. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  267. ^ a b c Lopatka, Jan; Muller, Robert (15 January 2018). "Openness or protection? Czechs' choice echoes EU, U.S. votes". Reuters. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  268. ^ a b c Mortkowitz, Siegfried (26 January 2018). "Prague's Turn for Populist Vs. Liberal Showdown". Politico. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  269. ^ a b McKenzie, Sheena (26 January 2018). "Why the Czech Presidential Election is One to Watch". CNN. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  270. ^ "Czech Presidential Election Headed for Tight Run-Off Vote -Poll". Reuters. 21 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. The Jan. 26-27 second round echoes other elections in the past two years across the European Union as well as U.S. President Donald Trump’s battle with former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton for the White House in 2016. 
  271. ^ McGrath, Ciaran (15 January 2018). "Czech election latest: Zeman plots to hold on to presidency against pro-EU Drahos". Sunday Express. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  272. ^ a b Cameron, Rob (27 January 2018). "Czech Election: Milos Zeman Wins the Battle of Ideas". BBC News. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  273. ^ Cameron, Rob (27 January 2018). "Milos Zeman vote settles Czech presidency - or does it?". BBC News. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  274. ^ Pečinka, Bohumil (28 January 2018). "Drahoš mohl vyhrát, ale Zeman podal výkon na hranici svých možností. Komentář Bohumila Pečinky" [Drahoš could win, but Zeman pushed his performance to the limit.]. Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  275. ^ a b c Boček, Jan (28 January 2018). "Tři analýzy: Drahošovi se nepodařilo získat voliče poražených v 1. kole, ztratil i vlastní příznivce" [Three analyzes: Drahoš failed to win voters of opponents defeated in the first round, he further lost his own fans]. iRozhlas.cz (in Czech). Český rozhlas. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  276. ^ Fér, Ondřej (28 January 2018). "Prezidentské volby 2018 skončily, je čas začít myslet na ty, které budou možná už za rok" [The 2018's presidential election is over, it's time to start thinking about those that may come next year]. Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  277. ^ Shotter, James (27 January 2018). "Milos Zeman Wins Second Term as Czech President". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  278. ^ a b c Mortkowitz, Siegfried (28 January 2018). "How (the European) Trump Won a Second Term". Politico. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  279. ^ Wirnitzer, Jan; Šrajbrová, Markéta (28 January 2018). "Ještě v pondělí vedl Drahoš. Rozhodl poslední týden a Zemanova mobilizace, říká sociolog Prokop" [On Monday Drahoš was still winning. It was the Last week and Zeman's mobilization what decided, says sociologist Prokop]. Aktuálně.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  280. ^ Muller, Robert; Hovet, Jason (26 January 2018). "Czech President Zeman Re-Elected With Anti-Immigration Message". Reuters. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  281. ^ "Prezidentská anketa: Jaký je váš postoj k přijímání migrantů?" [Presidential poll: What is your attitude towards accepting migrants?]. Euro Portál (in Czech). 9 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018. 
  282. ^ "Jsme zemí dvojího lidu. Lidé z velkoměst by ten výsledek měli vzít jako varování, říká Pithart" [We are the country of the dual nation. People from the cities should take the result as a warning, says Pithart]. Aktuálně.cz. DVTV. 27 January 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 
  283. ^ Shotter, James (28 January 2018). "Zeman's Presidential Victory Highlights Czech Divisions on EU". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 January 2018. 

External links[edit]

Czech presidential election, 2018

← 2013 12–13 January 2018 (first round)
26–27 January 2018 (second round)
2023 →
Opinion polls
Turnout 61.92% (first round) 0.61 pp
66.60% (second round) 7.49 pp
 
Candidate Miloš Zeman Jiří Drahoš
Party SPO Independent
Popular vote 2,853,390 2,701,206
Percentage 51.4% 48.6%

Results of the second round by district
     Miloš Zeman      Jiří Drahoš

President before election

Miloš Zeman
SPO

Elected President

Miloš Zeman
SPO

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Czech Republic
Political parties
Foreign relations


Czech Republic portal

Presidential elections were held in the Czech Republic in January 2018. The first round took place on 12 and 13 January. As no candidate won a majority, a run-off election between the top two candidates, Jiří Drahoš and President Miloš Zeman, was held on 26 and 27 January 2018.

In the first round voters chose between nine candidates who qualified for the election either by gathering 50,000 signatures from the public, 10 signatures from Senators or 20 signatures from members of the Chamber of Deputies (MPs). Incumbent president Miloš Zeman, running for re-election to his second and last term, finished first with 38.57%, followed by former President of the Czech Academy of Sciences Jiří Drahoš, who received 26.60%.

In the second round, Miloš Zeman narrowly defeated Drahoš and was elected for a second term in office. The turnout was 66.60%, the highest since the 1998 legislative election.

Background[edit]

Former Prime Minister Miloš Zeman was elected as President of the Czech Republic in 2013, defeating Minister of Foreign Affairs Karel Schwarzenberg in the country's first direct presidential elections. Until 2012, all presidential elections in the Czech Republic were indirect, with the president being chosen by the Parliament of the Czech Republic.[1]

According to polls conducted in 2016, Zeman was the front-runner and his chances of re-election were considered high,[2][3][4] although it was speculated that Zeman's candidacy would be determined by his health.[5][6][7] Zeman announced his candidacy on 9 March 2017.[8] There was speculation that both the Social Democrats (ČSSD) and ANO 2011 may endorse Zeman,[9] but neither party did in the end. Some commentators speculated that Zeman could be elected in the first round.[10][11]

On 23 August 2017, the Speaker of the Senate announced that the first round would be held on 12 and 13 January 2018, with a second round being held on 26 and 27 January 2018, if required.[12] The deadline for nominating candidates was scheduled for 7 November 2017.[13]

Candidates[edit]

In order to qualify for the ballot, candidates must gather 50,000 signatures from citizens, or the support of twenty Deputies or ten Senators. The candidates must file their applications and signatures 66 days before the election, following which the Interior Ministry will verify a sample of the signatures.

19 candidates submitted themselves as candidates.[14] Only nine of them met requirements for registration and became official candidates: Jiří Drahoš, Pavel Fischer, Petr Hannig, Marek Hilšer, Michal Horáček, Jiří Hynek, Vratislav Kulhánek, Mirek Topolánek and Miloš Zeman.[15]

Second round candidates[edit]

Candidates in the second round
Miloš Zeman Jiří Drahoš
Party of Civic Rights Independent
3rd
President of the Czech Republic
(2013–present)
President of the
Czech Academy of Sciences
(2009–2017)

Official candidates[edit]

Nine candidates gathered the required amount of signatures and had their candidacy approved by the Ministry of the Interior. Candidates are listed according to number allocated by the Ministry.[16]

Candidate name and age,[17]
political party
Office(s) held Details
Mirek Topolánek (61)
Independent
with ODS support
Prime Minister
(2006–2009)
Leader of the Civic Democratic Party
(2002–2010)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
(2006–2009)
Senator from Ostrava
(1996–2004)
Running as number 1 with support from 10 Senators – Speculation about Topolánek's candidacy started in November 2017 when Václav Klaus Jr. mentioned that Topolánek was seeking the party's support.[18][19] He announced his candidacy on 5 November 2017,[20] which was viewed by some experts as a potential major turning point in the campaign.[21] He ran with the support of ODS and SsČR.[22]
Michal Horáček (65)
Independent
None Running as number 2 with 86,940 signatures from the public[23] – After a period of speculation,[24] Horáček announced on 7 October 2016 that he had decided to run for president.[25] His slogan was: "We can do better."[26] In early 2017 Horáček was considered the main rival to Zeman.[27][28]
Pavel Fischer (52)
Independent
Ambassador to France
(2003–2010)
Running as number 3 with support from 17 Senators – Fischer announced his candidacy on 4 October 2017.[29][30]
Jiří Hynek (57)
Realists
Chairman of the Association for Weapons and Defense Industry
(since 2011)
Running as number 4 with support from 29 MPs[31] – Hynek announced his candidacy on 21 August 2017, as the candidate of the Realists political party.[32]
Petr Hannig (71)
Party of Common Sense
supported by ND, RSČMS, ZpL, KSH, ČHNJ, DSZ[33]
Leader of the Party of Common Sense
(since 2002)
Running as number 5 with support from 26 MPs – Hannig announced his candidacy on 19 July 2017.[34] On 26 October 2017, he announced that he had been nominated by 20 MPs.[35]
Vratislav Kulhánek (74)
Civic Democratic Alliance
CEO of Škoda Auto
(1997-2004)
President of the Czech Ice Hockey Association
(2004–2008)
Running as number 6 with support from 24 MPs – On 29 June 2017, the Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA) announced Kulhánek as its candidate.[36] Although the party does not have any MPs or Senators, he managed to secure nomination by 23 MPs, after failing to gather sufficient signatures from the public.[37]
Miloš Zeman (73)
Independent
with SPO support
President of the Czech Republic
(since 2013)
Prime Minister
(1998–2002)
Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies
(1996–1998)
Honorary Chairman of SPO (since 2010)[38]
Leader of the Social Democratic Party
(1993–2001)
Member of the Chamber of Deputies
(1996–2002)
Running as number 7 with 103,817 signatures from the public – He announced that he would run for a second term on 9 March 2017.[39][9] His supporters are using the slogan "Zeman again!"[40] Opinion polls indicated that he was the front-runner in the first round of the election.[41]
Marek Hilšer (41)
Independent
None Running as number 8 with support from 11 Senators – He announced his candidacy in July 2016, becoming the first declared candidate.[42][43] Hilšer asked the Senators for support after failing to gather sufficient signatures from the public.[37]
Jiří Drahoš (68)
Independent
supported by KDU-ČSL and STAN
President of the Czech Academy of Sciences
(2009–2017)
Running as number 9 with 141,234 signatures from the public – He announced his intention to run on 28 March 2017,[44] becoming Zeman's main rival.[45] His candidacy was supported by KDU-ČSL and STAN.[46]

Disqualified candidates[edit]

  • Josef Toman, running as an independent, said that he had submitted nomination papers signed by 75,000 people, but was disqualified for not fulfilling the quorum.[47]
  • Businesswoman Terezie Holovská announced her candidacy on 31 October 2017.[48]
  • Other disqualified candidates were Petr Blaha, Daniel Felkel, Oldřich Fiala, Roman Hladík, Libor Hrančík, David Chadim, Anna Kašná, Martin Ludačka and Karel Světnička.[49]

Withdrawn candidates[edit]

  • Former MP Otto Chaloupka (cs) announced his candidacy on 10 April 2017,[50] but ended his presidential bid on 7 November 2017 having failed to gather enough signatures.[51]
  • Michal Gulyáš, an actor, producer and writer, announced his candidacy on 11 January 2017 but withdrew from the election on 7 February for personal reasons.[52][53]
  • Miroslav Sládek, leader of SPR-RSČ, started collecting signatures,[54] and announced his candidacy on 27 February 2017.[55] On 23 October 2017 he withdrew from the election due to his party's poor results in the 2017 legislative election.[56]
  • Businessman Vladimír Boštík announced his candidacy on 30 August 2017.[57]

Party endorsements[edit]

In the first round, Jiří Drahoš ran with the support of the Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party[58] and Mayors and Independents.[59] Miloš Zeman ran with the support of Freedom and Direct Democracy[60] and the Party of Civic Rights (SPO).[61] On the day before the vote, ANO 2011 leader Andrej Babiš also endorsed Zeman.[62] In addition, Topolánek was endorsed by centre-right ODS[63] and the Freeholder Party.[22]

Parties which did not issue any official endorsement included the Party of Free Citizens (Svobodní),[64]TOP 09,[65] the Green Party,[66] the Moravians party,[67] the Communist Party,[68] and the Czech Pirate Party,[69] though several individual politicians endorsed candidates privately. The Social Democrats experienced an internal split over which candidate to endorse, leading to no official party endorsement,[70][71] but different groups within the party endorsing either Zeman,[72][73] or Drahoš.[74]

In the second round, Drahoš received further endorsements from ODS and TOP 09.[75][76]

Campaign before nominations[edit]

Early campaign[edit]

Senator Zdeněk Škromach was the first candidate to announce his intention to run, in 2015.[77] In response, Tomáš Halík announced that he would run for president if Škromach did.[78] This led former president Václav Klaus to announce that he would run against Halík if he was running without a strong rival.[79] Škromach, Halík and Klaus all finally declined to run.[80]

On 21 May 2016, former minister Michael Kocáb issued the "Kroměříž Proclamation", with the intention of finding a strong candidate to run against Zeman. Kocáb suggested Michal Horáček, who declined the movement's support but did not rule out running.[81] Horáček mentioned his possible candidacy in April 2016 and some polls indicated that he would be the strongest possible contender to Zeman.[82][83][84]

Marek Hilšer launched his campaign in July 2016, with the slogan: "Marek to the Castle." He said he would finance his presidential campaign through a transparent account.[85] Hilšer has negative opinions of Russia and China, and also supports helping immigrants.[86]

Michal Horáček was Zeman's leading rival according to polls in 2016 and early 2017

Michal Horáček officially launched his campaign on 3 November 2016.[87] A week earlier he had moderated a meeting at Old Town Square, which was considered to be the actual start of his campaign as it was meant to coincide with official celebrations of Czech Statehood Day.[88][89][90] Horáček stated that he wanted his campaign to be based on respect for all people and all opinions. He also said that he believed he could win in the first round.[91] TOP 09, STAN and KDU-ČSL were considering supporting Horáček before his campaign started,[92] but none of them did in the end. Horáček also entered into a dispute with TOP 09.[93][94][95]

On 21 December 2016, Institute for Democracy 21 launched an interactive web game to choose a presidential candidate. Everyone who voted was allowed to cast three positive votes and one negative vote. Jiří Pánek started as the winning candidate, despite having ruled himself out of running.[96] As of April 2017, Jiří Drahoš is leading the game.

It was reported in January 2017 that Czech political parties had decided to cease preparations for the election until Zeman announced whether he was seeking re-election.[97] Zeman discussed his possible candidacy with close colleagues on 31 January. One of them stated that Zeman was likely to run for re-election, and would announce his decision on 9 March 2017.[98]

On 9 February 2017 Horáček announced his team of his advisers, including Magda Vášáryová, Dana Drábová and Pavel Pefko.[99] In response, Zeman said that Horáček "never says what he thinks. His advisers will talk instead of him."[100] Zeman attended the SPO Congress on 11 February 2017, at which SPO leader Jan Veleba assured Zeman that the party would support his reelection campaign if he decided to run.[101] Zeman visited hospital for a preventive examination after the congress.[102]

On 9 March, the Kroměříž Proclamation started gathering signatures for Marek Hilšer and Petr Kolář.[103]

March 2017[edit]

Zeman announced his candidacy on 9 March during a meeting with his supporters, and confirmed his decision the next day in a press conference, saying that he had been persuaded by the support of the people. He commented that he did not consider himself the favourite in the election, and also said he would not run a political campaign, attack his rivals, or participate in debates, but would gather the 50,000 signatures required to qualify for the presidential ballot.[104] He also announced that he would appear in a television programme called A week with the President.[105] Michal Horáček criticised Zeman's decision not to participate in presidential debates.[106]

On 13 March, Karel Štogl, a former member of ČSSD who still has links with the party, announced his intention to run and began seeking parliamentary support for his nomination.[107][108][109]

Jiří Drahoš, former President of the Czech Academy of Sciences, announced his candidacy on 28 March 2017.[110] Drahoš said he did not want to be the official candidate of any party, but some party leaders expressed their intention to endorse him. Petr Gazdík, the leader of Mayors and Independents, described Drahoš as a great candidate and rival to Zeman, and said he believed he could convince his party to support Drahoš. The leaders of TOP 09 and KDU-ČSL also said they were considering supporting him. ODS leader Petr Fiala refused to comment on Drahoš's candidacy but acknowledged him to be a dignified candidate.[44] Leader of ANO 2011 Andrej Babiš said that he considered Drahoš a respectable person but noted that Drahoš did not want the support of any party. In response to the announcement, Zeman's spokesman Jiří Ovčáček described Drahoš as "just a product of PR". He added that in his view the Czech Republic needed "a president who will stand by people in situations such as the migration crisis", not just "a yes man who can deliver empty speeches".[110] Michal Horáček said that Drahoš would be a candidate of political parties and would have to return their support.[111] Drahoš met journalists at the National Technical Library on 30 March 2017. He described himself as an independent candidate who supports the European Union and NATO, and also stated that he would reject a government that included the Communist Party. He also announced plans to gather 50,000 signatures instead of being nominated by lawmakers.[112][113]

April 2017[edit]

On 16 April 2017, Michal Horáček started gathering signatures, saying that he believed he could collect the required number within a matter of weeks.[114]

Petitioning for Michal Horáček in Brno.

The Party of Civic Rights (SPO) began Zeman's presidential campaign, under the slogan "Zeman again!" The campaign included some of Zeman's close colleagues, though Zeman himself had stated that he would not campaign.[40] First lady Ivana Zemanová was named head of Zeman's campaign team. SPO started gathering signatures on 24 April 2017.[115][116][117]

Jiří Drahoš also started gathering signatures on 24 April 2017, with approximately 500 volunteers.[118] Drahoš also announced that his spokeswoman would be Lenka Pastorčáková, a journalist for Czech Television.[119]

May 2017[edit]

On 6 May 2017, Horáček announced that he had gathered between 47,000 and 52,000 signatures, with the help of 2,500 supporters. By the same day Marek Hilšer had reached 2,000 signatures.[120]

Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka announced on 16 May 2017 that ČSSD would most likely nominate its own candidate for the election instead of supporting Zeman, due to his actions during the government crisis in May 2017.[121] Zeman's spokesman Jiří Ovčáček responded that this was not a surprise because Sobotka had always been lobbying to prevent Zeman's re-election.[122] According to some ČSSD sources, the purpose of fielding a ČSSD candidate would not be to win the election but to weaken Zeman.[123] Some political scientists speculated that Zeman's actions during the crisis could discourage voters from voting him and damage his chances for reelection.[124][125][126] On 25 May 2017, Sobotka mentioned Minister of Foreign Affairs Lubomír Zaorálek and Senate Speaker Milan Štěch as possible candidates, adding that ČSSD may decide on a candidate in Summer 2017.[127] Opinion polls conducted after the crisis by Median indicated that Zeman's ratings had dropped by 2%. The same poll also showed Drahoš as Zeman's main rival.[128]

In May 2017, during a visit to China, Miloš Zeman was visibly tired and required assistance from his security detail to walk. His spokesman Jiří Ovčáček attributed this to his demanding program, including ten days of work without any time to rest.[129] His tiredness was also visible at the subsequent NATO summit, when Zeman was absent for speeches by political leaders such as Donald Trump, Jens Stoltenberg, and Angela Merkel, during which he would have been required to stand.[130] These events revived speculation about Zeman's health,[131][132] with some commentators speculating that Zeman may withdraw from the election.[133][134][135] Zeman's doctors said that his program was too exhausting and recommended that Zeman rest for one or two weeks. Zeman adjusted his program as a result.[136][137]

On 26 May 2017, Jiří Drahoš launched his campaign at a meeting in Opava. He visited employees of a local factory and some retirement homes.[138] On 30 May Drahoš was endorsed by Miroslav Kalousek, leader of TOP 09, though the party itself did not officially endorse him.[139] Drahoš was expected to receive the support of the Populars and Mayors coalition (KDU-ČSL and Mayors and Independents).[59][140]

June 2017[edit]

On 1 June 2017, Horáček's spokesman Jiří Táborský announced that Horáček had collected the required number of signatures to stand in the election, but would keep collecting.[141] At the same time Zeman had collected 18,000 signatures, Drahoš had collected 20,000, and Marek Hilšer had collected 5,000. Horáček had been collecting signatures at a rate of 1,000 per day, Zeman and Drahoš at 500 per day, and Hilšer at 160 per day. Horáček had 448 signing posts, Zeman 223, Drahoš 230 and Hilšer 14.[142] By 5 June 2017, Drahoš had gathered 25,000 signatures.[143] On 10 June 2017, Karel Štogl announced that he had the support of ten senators, including ČSSD senator Jan Hajda. Hajda refused to comment on Štogl's statement.[144]

On 26 June 2017, Horáček announced his intention to gather signatures for Drahoš and Hilšer, in order to "make the democratic environment better". Drahoš, who had gathered 30,000 signatures to that point, refused Horáček's help,[145][146] while Hilšer accepted it.[147]

Vratislav Kulhánek announced his candidacy on 29 June 2017, as the candidate of the Civic Democratic Alliance (ODA), which would collect signatures on his behalf. ODA leader Pavel Sehnal said that Kulhánek was a right-wing candidate, which was something missing in the election. Zeman said that he did not know Kulhánek well but remembered him as a successful manager of Škoda Auto, adding that he had no problem with Kulhánek's candidacy because he believed that it was better to have more candidates.[148][149]

July 2017[edit]

On 1 July 2017, Horáček started working with Ewig Public Relations agency, to help with his campaign.[150] On 4 July, the leaders of KDU-ČSL and STAN announced that they would recommend that their parties support Jiří Drahoš.[151]Petr Hannig, leader of far-right party Rozumní, announced his candidacy on 19 July 2017. He was endorsed by other far-right parties such as National Democracy. Hannig said that he wanted to continue with Zeman's policies but behave differently.[152][153]

By 20 July 2017, Horáček had gathered 65,000 signatures, Zeman 43,000 signatures, Drahoš 35,000 signatures, Hilšer 10,000 signatures (not including signatures gathered by Horáček) and Kulhánek 5,000 signatures. Another prospective candidate, Jaroslav Kubera, had gathered the signatures of 15 Senators, enabling him to be nominated if he decided to run.[154]

August 2017[edit]

Jiří Drahoš during the campaign for the presidency on 19 August 2017.

On 10 August, SPO leader Jan Veleba announced that Zeman had enough signatures to stand in the election.[155] Hilšer had 15,000 signatures at that point, and Drahoš stated that he would reach the required number of signatures sometime in August or September 2017.[156] On 16 August, Ivana Zemanová announced that Zeman had collected 59,263 signatures.[157] Drahoš had at the time over 40,000 signatures.[158] On 19 August 2017, Drahoš announced he had collected 78,321 signatures.[159]

On 21 August, the Realists announced Jiří Hynek as their candidate. The party started to gather signatures for his candidacy, and also to ask MPs for support.[32] Hynek said that some MPs had already promised to support him.[160]

On 24 August, Zeman appeared in public for the first time in two months, to launch the Agrosalon Earth Breadwinner. His spokesman Ovčáček told journalists that Zeman's health was not a problem.[161] Zeman criticized EU subsidies for decreasing milk production, which he described as an "atrocity".[162]

On 30 August, Businessman Vladimír Boštík announced his candidacy, saying that he had already gathered 63,000 signatures.[163] His campaign motto was "A boy from a village wants to conquer Prague Castle.[164]

September 2017[edit]

On 24 September, Drahoš announced he had gathered 100,000 signatures. Horáček had 80,000 signatures and Hilšer 30,000 signatures. Kulhánek announced that he did not have enough signatures and started to seek support from MPs.[37]

October 2017[edit]

On 4 October, Pavel Fischer announced his candidacy, adding that he had gathered the signatures of 10 senators, allowing him to run.[165] Fischer announced his candidacy on Václav Havel's birthday, and said that he would like to be a president similar to Havel.[166] On 10 October, Drahoš called on the incoming government to draw up a plan for the adoption of the Euro currency.[167]

On 13 October, Drahoš announced that he would stop gathering new signatures; by 15 October he had gathered 110,000 signatures.[168] However, he continued collecting for almost a month longer. On 17 October Jiří Hynek announced that he had submitted his nomination with the signatures of 22 MPs.[169] Hynek said that he had gathered 15,000 signatures from the public, but he had started gathering them too late.[170] On 18 October Kulhánek announced that he had been nominated by 23 MPs, and submitted his nomination on the same day.[171] By 26 October, Petr Hannig had received the support of 20 MPs.[34]Mayors and Independents endorsed Drahoš on 31 October, and called for other parties to do the same.[59]

November 2017[edit]

Terezie Holovská announced her candidacy on 2 November, asking 44 female MPs for nomination. Marek Hilšer announced he had received nominations from 11 senators.[172] Drahoš submitted his nomination on 3 November, with 142,000 signatures.[173]

Former Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek announced his candidacy on 5 November 2017

On 4 November, media started to speculate that former Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek could run for the office.[174] Some media reported that Topolánek had asked Senators of the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) for support and also discussed his candidacy with the leader of the party.[175] On 5 November, Topolánek confirmed his candidacy, stating that he was seeking the support of Senators from all parties. Some Civic Democrat politicians endorsed his candidacy.[20] Leader of ANO 2011 Andrej Babiš attacked Topolánek, describing him as the most corrupt Czech Prime Minister.[176] Topolánek's candidacy was also criticised by Jiří Drahoš, who commented that Topolánek represented the same thing as Zeman - rudeness and lack of respect for his opponents. He called Topolánek's candidacy a "bad joke".[177] By 6 November Topolánek had gathered enough signatures to run.[178] ODS endorsed Topolánek on the same day.[63] Some media commentators and political scientists predicted that he could become the main rival to Zeman.[45][179][180] Topolánek quickly became the third strongest candidate, overtaking Michal Horáček in opinion polls.[181]

On 6 November, Zeman submitted his nomination, with 113,038 signatures. Zeman denied speculation about his health and refused to comment on his rivals.[182][183]

Official campaign[edit]

Nominations closed[edit]

Nominations were closed on 7 November 2017. 19 candidates submitted their nominations in time, but on 10 November the Interior Ministry announced that only nine candidates met the requirements for the nomination: Miloš Zeman, Jiří Drahoš, Mirek Topolánek, Michal Horáček, Vratislav Kulhánek, Jiří Hynek, Petr Hannig, Pavel Fischer and Marek Hilšer. The other candidates were disqualified for not meeting the nomination requirements.[184]

Mirek Topolánek held a press conference on 7 November after nominations were closed, saying that he wanted to be a "strong, democratic and political candidate", adding that he had been motivated to stand by Zeman's meeting with Andrej Babiš in Lány. He stated that "Zeman should go down in history as the Prime Minister who brought the Czech Republic into NATO rather than as a president who violated constitutional conventions".[185] Topolánek also introduced his team, consisting of Dana Makrlíková, Gabriela Kloudová, Dalibor Veřmiřovský and Edvard Kožušník.[186] Public relations expert Jakub Horák joined Topolánek's team on 9 November 2017. Horák had managed the successful campaign for the Pirate Party in the October 2017 legislative election.[187]

The Supreme Administrative Court had to decide whether to disqualify five candidates. It ruled that the candidates are permitted to run.

After the nominations were closed, some constitutional lawyers noted that some Senators and MPs had nominated more than one candidate, which could be against the law. The Ministry of Internal Affairs had interpreted the law as allowing legislators to support more than one candidate, and published this interpretation online, which candidates and Senators then followed. Candidates at risk from the mistake by the Ministry included Topolánek, Hannig and Hynek. Jan Kysela commented that he doubted the court would disqualify these candidates, because they would be punishing them for a mistake that was made by someone else.[188][189]

On 14 November, KDU-ČSL endorsed Drahoš.[190] Some candidates appeared at the Festival of Freedom on 17 November to commemorate the Velvet Revolution. Drahoš, Hilšer and Fischer all made speeches, but organisers refused to allow Topolánek or Michal Horáček to take part, stating that they wanted to give a platform to candidates who were in accordance with the values of 17 November. This angered Horáček, who had been a direct participant in the events of 17 November 1989.[191]

Terezie Holovská filed a lawsuit against the candidacies of Hannig, Hilšer, Hynek, Kulhánek and Topolánek, arguing that they should be disqualified because some MPs and Senators had nominated more than one candidate. Holovská had previously sought nomination from MPs but failed to attract sufficient nominations and was disqualified.[192]

Pavel Fischer launched his campaign on 30 November, with the slogan "I know how to do it". Fischer said he wanted to return the Czech Republic to the world map.[193] Topolánek also launched his campaign on the same day, criticising Zeman's policies and calling for an active role in NATO and the EU. He said that "the Czech Republic needs someone who knows how to play hard". Topolánek rejected migrant quotas and adoption of the Euro, though he stated that there was no alternative to the European Union.[194]

December 2017[edit]

On 1 December, Drahoš expressed fears that Russia could influence the election, and met Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka to discuss the matter. He also expressed his belief that Russia influenced the 2017 legislative election. The Security Information Service (BIS) released a statement dismissing Drahoš' claims.[195] Zeman criticised Drahoš for spreading "conspiracy theories".[196] Topolánek commented that Drahoš had shown he did not know much about politics, and called for a televised debate between him and Drahoš, as that couldn't be manipulated by foreign propaganda.[197] On 9 December, Zeman appeared at a Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) conference and received indirect support from the party.

On 13 December, the Supreme Administrative Court rejected Holovská's lawsuit.[198] The court confirmed that MPs and Senators could sign only one candidacy, but ruled that all candidates could participate in the election.[199]

Horáček attacked the nomination of Communist MP Zdeněk Ondráček to head the Permament Commission of the Chamber of Deputies of oversight over the General Inspection of Security Forces. Ondráček had been a member of the Communist police that attacked demonstrators in 1989. This led Horáček into a Twitter exchange with Topolánek, who also disagreed with Ondráček's nomination but described Horáček's comments as "a theatre". He noted that Ondráček used to be a member of a permanent commission with oversight over the BIS, which was more serious but had received no comment from Horáček. Horáček said that he was running to change things and attacked Topolánek for his past and for his links with former co-worker Marek Dalík. He also noted that Topolánek had attended the birthday party of Zeman's aide Martin Nejedlý. Topolánek called Horáček's argument "pathetic", and mentioned Horáček's involvement in the gambling business.[200] Ondráček was elected on 19 December.[201]

Drahoš and Topolánek started attacking each other during December. Drahoš accused Topolánek's government of under-funding the Czech Academy of Sciences. Topolánek responded that the Academy had 6 billions CZK during his government and cuts for its finances came after he left office.[202] For his part, Topolánek attacked Drahoš over his statement that he would appoint a cabinet supported by the Communists and SPD, describing this as a U-turn, as Drahoš had previously stated the opposite.[203]

On 15 December, Pavel Fischer criticised Zeman for not participating in presidential debates. He sent him a public letter and wanted to meet with him for a head-to-head debate. He also said Zeman's presidential campaign was a "hybrid campaign", as though Zeman had stated that he wouldn't campaign, billboards promoting Zeman's campaign had appeared all over the country. Zeman's spokesman Ovčáček called Fischer "desperate".[204] Fischer himself attracted controversy on 16 December when he stated that he would not appoint a homosexual as a judge to the Constitutional Court. He later apologised for his statement.[205]

On 20 December, Drahoš' team published a post on social media about Václav Klaus's amnesty, which was criticised when it was revealed that Drahoš' team had copied a similar post by Horáček. Drahoš apologised and attributed the mistake to an external creative. Horáček commented that it was not the first time Drahoš had copied his campaign.[206][207]

January 2018[edit]

In January, Czech Television started to broadcast spots of all candidates, except Zeman's who refused to make one.[208] Marek Hilšer attacked Zeman for not participating in debates, suggesting that the debates should feature an empty chair to remind viewers of Zeman's absence.[209]

Mirek Topolánek launched the final phase of his campaign on 3 January, saying that he wanted to be a strong president who "would neither welcome EU migrant quotas, nor beckon to Eastern powers". He also attacked Miloš Zeman and Jiří Drahoš.[210]

The campaign became more aggressive in the days leading up to the first round. Drahoš attacked Topolánek over funding for the Czech Academy of Sciences, accusing Topolánek of trying to destroy and defund the Academy. Topolánek dismissed Drahoš' accusation and stated that cut in funding for the Academy took place after his premiership concluded, supporting his arguments with a graph. Topolánek then suggested that the Academy's problems were due to Drahoš' poor management skills. Drahoš disagreed. Topolánek attacked Drahoš over his campaign manager Jakub Kleindienst, due to his connection to past scandals via his involvement in a company with links to former Minister David Rath.[211] Drahoš defended Kleindiest in interviews.[212] Michal Horáček was accused of financing negative articles about his political rivals, which he denied. Pavel Fischer described Horáček's tactics as "dirty".[213]

Pavel Fischer held a meeting with his supporters on 7 January 2017. His supporters started referring to his presidential campaign as a "Turquoise revolution". Fischer's supporters were very active on social media.[214]

First round[edit]

First round results by district

Before the first round, leaflets were distributed in the city of Ostrava containing false claims that Zeman, as the current president, would automatically progress to the second round of the election, so that his supporters would be absent during the first. Similar messages were also shared on social media. The Ostrava police are investigating the matter as a criminal act.[215]

During the first round, Miloš Zeman was confronted while preparing to cast his vote by a Ukrainian Femen protester who repeatedly screamed "Zeman, Putin's slut", with the same words painted across her bare chest.[216] She was removed from the polling station by security and arrested on a count of disorderly conduct.[217] The protester was later expelled from the country and sentenced by the court to three months of prison with the sentence being suspended for a one-year probation period.[218]

Miloš Zeman and Jiří Drahoš qualified for the second round, with 38.57% and 26.60% of the vote respectively. Drahoš won the most votes in Prague, Prague-West and Prague-East Districts, and from voters abroad. Zeman won the most votes in all other districts of the country.[219]

Second round[edit]

Second round result by district

Drahoš was endorsed by defeated candidates Pavel Fischer, Marek Hilšer, Michal Horáček, Vratislav Kulhánek and Mirek Topolánek. Zeman was endorsed by Petr Hannig. Jiří Hynek said he would publish his endorsement one day before the second round, after the two remaining candidates had answered a questionnaire he would send them. Zeman agreed to participate in debates for the second round.[220][221] Drahoš received endorsements from the Civic Democratic Party and TOP 09.[75][76] Drahoš was considered the slight front-runner in the second round.[222][223][224] Zeman "changed his tone" and emphasized his centrist credentials during the last stretch of the election campaign.[225]

On 15 January, Zeman suggested that he and Drahoš should participate in four debates. Drahoš said that he would participate in only two debates, to spend his time focusing on a personal campaign in regions where he had received fewer votes.[226][227]

Drahoš launched his second round campaign on 16 January 2018. He visited his hometown Jablunkov and was welcomed by his supporters at the Town Hall. Drahoš received a Golden Apple from the mayor of the town and then attended an ice hockey match in Třinec. He was booed by ice hockey fans during the match.[228]Pavel Fischer, Michal Horáček and Marek Hilšer decided to participate in Drahoš' campaign.[229]

The Friends of Miloš Zeman Association published an anti-Drahoš advertisement linking him with support for immigration. Drahoš stated that he did not support immigration and opposed migrant quotas.[230] Zeman himself said that he considered the advertisement useless and believed that it would hurt him and not Drahoš. On the other hand, he defended his supporters and repeated the connection of Drahoš with immigration.[231]

Zeman appeared in a broadcast on TV Nova on 21 January 2018. He said he would prefer a government of ANO 2011 supported by the Social Democrats and the Communist Party. He also stated that he would be less arrogant during his second term. Drahoš on the other hand held meetings with his supporters in Brno and Ostrava.[232]

The candidates faced each other in two head-to-head debates. The first was broadcast on Prima TV on 23 January. The debate was very aggressive and influenced by the loud audience. Zeman was described as more energetic, while Drahoš was said to be faint and visibly nervous. Experts expressed the opinion that Zeman had dominated the debate and appeared as the victor.[233][234][235][236] Drahoš improved his performance during the Czech Television debate on 25 January. The debate was calmer and Drahoš was considered to be less uncertain than during the previous debate. The second debate was considered a tie.[237]

Voting was held on 26 and 27 January 2018. Zeman emerged victorious with 51.37% of the vote to Drahoš's 48.63%,[238] with a turnout of 66.60%, the highest since the 1998 legislative election.

Campaign finance[edit]

No candidate may spend more than 40,000,000 CZK. Candidates who advance to the second round can spend 50,000,000 CZK (around 2,300,000 USD).[239][240]

Candidate Money Raised Money Spent Source
Jiří Drahoš 32,500,000 CZK 36,000,000 CZK [241]
Michal Horáček 26,000,000 CZK 30,000,000 CZK [242]
Miloš Zeman 4,500,000 CZK 17,000,000 CZK [241]
Vratislav Kulhánek 5,900,000 CZK 7,000,000 CZK [242][241]
Pavel Fischer 5,300,000 CZK 5,300,000 CZK [242][241]
Mirek Topolánek 7,600,000 CZK 13,000,000 CZK [242][241]
Marek Hilšer 650,000 CZK 400,000 CZK [242][241]
Jiří Hynek 300,000 CZK 200,000 CZK [242]
Petr Hannig 3,700 CZK 100 CZK [242]

Debates[edit]

The first debate was held on 8 November 2017 at Charles University. Jiří Drahoš, Michal Horáček, Marek Hilšer, Jiří Hynek, Pavel Fischer, Petr Hannig and Mirek Topolánek participated in the debate. Miloš Zeman refused to participate and instead went to Olomouc region to meet with citizens.[243] Topolánek called for defense of Schengen border. Drahoš stated that he wants respect for the rules.[244] Moderator mentioned Drahoš's attack against Topolánek. Topolánek stated that "it was either written by a woman or PR Mage. I forgave Professor whether I ever took it seriously." Audience was allowed to vote who they like the most. Drahoš and Hilšer received the most votes.[245] According to Hospodářské noviny, Topolánek and Hilšer seemed as the most civil candidates.[246]

Seznam News held a presidential debate on 13 November 2017. Topolánek, Drahoš, Horáček, Fischer, Hilšer and Kulhánek participated. Topolánek was considered the winner of the debate.[247] Another debate was held in Liberec on 16 November 2017.[248]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls from 2014 showed Miloš Zeman leading in the first round with between 20% and 48% of the vote. Michal Horáček became his main rival during 2016 but was overtaken by Jiří Drahoš during 2017. Drahoš was leading polls for the second round with a 10% lead in September 2017. The margin narrowed during October and November and Drahoš' lead fluctuated between 0.5% and 4%. Some polls in late January 2018 showed Zeman with a narrow lead.

Results[edit]

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Miloš Zeman Party of Civic Rights 1,985,547 38.57 2,853,390 51.37
Jiří Drahoš Independent, with KDU–ČSL and STAN support 1,369,601 26.60 2,701,206 48.63
Pavel Fischer Independent 526,694 10.23
Michal Horáček Independent 472,643 9.18
Marek Hilšer Independent 454,949 8.84
Mirek Topolánek Independent, with ODS support 221,689 4.31
Jiří Hynek Realists 63,348 1.23
Petr Hannig Party of Common Sense 29,228 0.57
Vratislav Kulhánek Civic Democratic Alliance 24,442 0.47
Invalid/blank votes 29,097 13,031
Total 5,177,238 100 5,567,627 100
Registered voters/turnout 8,366,433 61.92 8,362,987 66.60
Source: Volby

Aftermath[edit]

Zeman said that a narrow victory pleases the most people, and that he respected all people who vote. Zeman confirmed that his second term would be the end of his political career, as the election was "his last political victory that won't be followed by any political defeat."[249] Drahoš conceded defeat and congratulated Zeman. He stated that he would not be leaving politics, telling supporters: "We didn't win but we didn't lose. I want to use the huge amount of energy that shouldn't disappear".[250]

Prime Minister Andrej Babiš congratulated Zeman and said that he had believed that the campaign based on attacks against him could not succeed.[251] Leader of the opposition Petr Fiala also congratulated Zeman, and expressed hope that Zeman would serve the interests of the Czech Republic. The leader of Pirate Party, Ivan Bartoš, stated that he was pleased about the strong support for Jiří Drahoš. SPD leader Tomio Okamura and acting Social Democrat leader Milan Chovanec celebrated the results with Zeman at his election headquarters. Okamura expressed joy at the result, and Chovanec stated that he was glad that Zeman won. Communist Party leader Vojtěch Filip described Zeman's victory as an assurance of stability. KDU–ČSL leader Pavel Bělobrádek expressed hope that Zeman would unify the divided society. Miroslav Kalousek expressed dissatisfaction with the result and stated that the Czech Republic had wasted an opportunity for change.[252] Zeman was also personally congratulated by his predecessor Václav Klaus. Klaus stated that he was glad about the result but afraid that Drahoš' supporters would not accept it. Zeman thanked Klaus for his support and invited him for a drink.[253][254]

By the end of February 2018, the Supreme Administrative Court rejected all of about 70 complaints concerning the regularity of elections as there were no serious mistakes or violation of the election law able to influence the election outcome.[255]

According to a poll conducted by Median, 54.2% of Czech people were satisfied with the result, and 37.5% were dissatisfied.[256]

International reactions[edit]

  •  China - President Xi Jinping congratulated Zeman and stated that he wants to take the strategic partnership between the two countries to a higher level.[257]
  •  European Union - European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker congratulated Zeman and said he was looking forward to working with him. European Council President Donald Tusk also congratulated Zeman on his victory.[258]
  •  France - President Emmanuel Macron congratulated Zeman on 13 February 2018, and highlighted the friendly relations and historical ties between the two countries.[259]
  •  Germany - President Frank-Walter Steinmeier congratulated Zeman and noted the two countries' common history.[260] Chancellor Angela Merkel congratulated Zeman on 1 February 2018.[261]
  •  Israel - Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu personally congratulated Zeman.[262]
  •  Russia - President Vladimir Putin was among the first to congratulate Zeman, saying that the election confirmed Zeman's authority. He expressed readiness for constructive cooperation on bilateral relations.[263]
  •  Slovakia - Prime Minister Robert Fico was the first international politician to congratulate Zeman, calling him an intelligent and experienced politician and saying that he was pleased with the result.[264] President Andrej Kiska congratulated Zeman and expressed hope that relations between the two countries would stay close. He also invited Zeman to Slovakia.[265]

Analysis[edit]

Observers compared the presidential race to previous elections such as the 2016 Austrian,[266][267]2016 United States[267][268][269][270][271][272] and 2017 French[267][268] presidential elections, which saw a liberal internationalist running against a national populist.[268][269][272][273] Though both sides seemed to have roughly equal support among Czech voters, the national populism was represented by clearer ideology and strong leaders, while the liberal message was fragmented and the candidates did not have common themes or language, apart from agreeing on the need for an "anti-Zeman" candidate.[274][275][276]

According to analysts, important factors in Zeman's victory were his strong debate performances and the closeness of the first round results, the latter helping mobilize his base. Drahoš was estimated to have lost about a quarter of his voters as a result of the televised debates.[275][277][278] Analysts also pointed out that the support for Zeman came from districts with high levels of poverty, and also from regions dominated by traditional industries, agriculture and the construction industry, while regions dominated by IT services and public administration supported Drahoš.[275][279] Zeman's strident opposition to immigration also worked in his favor,[280][278] though his major opponents Drahoš and Horáček also voiced opposition to immigration and the EU's migrant quotas, while all but one candidate criticised illegal immigration to Europe.[281]

Analysts as well as politicians saw the close election results as an illustration of the deep divisions present in Czech society.[278][282][283]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Prezidentské volby 2018 - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 2017-12-12. 
  2. ^ "ANALÝZA: Zemanovy šance na obhajobu zvyšuje soupeření Babiše se Sobotkou". iDNES.cz. 21 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  3. ^ "Miloš Zeman válcuje soupeře". Deník.cz. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Průzkum: Zeman jasně vede. Horáček druhý". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  5. ^ "Bude Zeman znovu kandidovat? Víme, co rozhodne". Reflex.cz. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  6. ^ "Průzkumy i sázkové kanceláře se mýlily v případě Trumpa i Hofera. Je dobré teď vsadit na Zemana?". Reflex.cz. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  7. ^ "Echo24.cz má prý zprávy z Hradu, které Zemanovy fanoušky nepotěší. Týkají se kandidatury v příštích volbách". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  8. ^ "Miloš Zeman oficiálně oznámil kandidaturu na prezidenta - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Miloši, Miloši! Premiér Sobotka to prý zkouší na Zemana, protože se bojí Babiše. Noviny slyšely více". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 3 January 2017. 
  10. ^ televize, Česká. "Paroubek: Kdyby se dnes volil prezident, Zeman vyhraje v prvním kole". ČT24 (in Czech). Retrieved 18 April 2017. 
  11. ^ Honzejk, Petr (18 April 2017). "Jiné čtení průzkumů: Co když Zeman vyhraje už v prvním kole?". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 18 April 2017. 
  12. ^ "Češi si začnou volit prezidenta 12. ledna. Předseda Senátu vybral dřívější termín | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 23 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  13. ^ "Češi budou volit prezidenta 12. a 13. ledna". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 23 August 2017. 
  14. ^ "O post prezidenta se chce utkat 19 kandidátů, někteří budou nejspíše z boje vyřazeni - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  15. ^ ČTK, Echo24, (10 November 2017). "O prezidenta může usilovat jen 9 lidí, zbylé přihlášky vnitro vyřadilo". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  16. ^ "Vylosovaná čísla, kterými budou označeny hlasovací lístky pro volbu prezidenta republiky - Ministerstvo vnitra České republiky". www.mvcr.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  17. ^ Inauguration day is set as the last possible date for person to become President.
  18. ^ "Bomba na obzoru? Mirek Topolánek skutečně zvažuje kandidaturu na Hrad". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  19. ^ "Václav Klaus ml.: Kandidát na prezidenta? Říká si o to Topolánek". Reflex.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "Mirek Topolánek potvrdil svou kandidaturu na prezidenta". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 5 November 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017. 
  21. ^ "Topolánek podle expertů způsobil zlom v kampani. Ostatní kandidáty může donutit k silnějším výrokům". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 19 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  22. ^ a b "Prohlášení Soukromníků k návštěvě Mirka Topolánka". www.soukromnici.cz. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  23. ^ "Do boje o Hrad může jít 9 kandidátů. 11 uchazečů nesplnilo podmínky". Lidovky.cz. 10 November 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  24. ^ "Horáček: Prezident nevládne, to dělá vláda. Prezident je vrchní komentátor a to už dělám nejmíň třicet let". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). 23 May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016. 
  25. ^ "Horáček se chystá na volbu prezidenta. Už je to na víc než 99 procent". iDNES.cz. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016. 
  26. ^ "Horáček představil oficiální stránku kampaně - Volba prezidenta 2018". Volba prezidenta 2018 (in Czech). 21 November 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  27. ^ "Horáček besedoval na gymnáziu v Sušici. Přišel jediný zájemce". iDNES.cz. 16 February 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  28. ^ "Horáček: Zeman tolik hlasů nedostane, když přijde lepší nabídka než Schwarzenberg - Seznam Zprávy". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  29. ^ "Bývalý diplomat a Havlův poradce Fischer bude kandidovat na prezidenta". iDNES.cz. 4 October 2017. Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  30. ^ "Bývalý diplomat a Havlův poradce Pavel Fischer chce kandidovat na prezidenta. Podporu našel mezi senátory". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  31. ^ "Jiří Hynek podal kandidaturu na prezidenta. Má podporu 22 poslanců". Lidovky.cz. 17 October 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2017. 
  32. ^ a b "Realisté chtějí za prezidenta Jiřího Hynka, šéfa Asociace obranného průmyslu". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  33. ^ "Hudebník Hannig bude kandidovat na prezidenta. Podpořil ho extremista Adam B. Bartoš". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 19 July 2017. 
  34. ^ a b "Dalším uchazečem o post prezidenta je producent Hannig". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 19 July 2017. 
  35. ^ "Hannig může kandidovat na Hrad. Pomohli mu i noví poslanci". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 26 October 2017. 
  36. ^ "Exšéf Škody Auto Kulhánek ohlásil kandidaturu na prezidenta. Do boje ho vyslala ODA". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  37. ^ a b c "Drahoš už překročil 100 tisíc podpisů, Horáček má 80 tisíc. Hilšer zatím ztrácí". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 24 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  38. ^ "SPO-Z: Miloš Zeman se stal čestným předsedou strany". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 20 January 2018. 
  39. ^ "Zeman řekl svým příznivcům, že bude znovu kandidovat na Hrad". iDNES.cz. 9 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  40. ^ a b "Prezident Zeman jde znovu do toho. A my jsme zjistili, co před volbami chystá". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 20 April 2017. 
  41. ^ "Kandidáti na prezidenta České republiky ve volbách 2018 - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 2018-01-10. 
  42. ^ "Umím jít s kůží na trh, říká nový kandidát na Hrad. Začal sbírat podpisy". iDNES.cz. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  43. ^ "Pražská kavárna má nového kandidáta na Hrad: Je to svlékající se aktivista!". Expres.cz. 27 July 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  44. ^ a b "Drahoš oznámil kandidaturu na prezidenta" [Drahos announced his candidacy for the president]. Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  45. ^ a b Kreč, Luboš (6 November 2017). "Výmluvný a razantní expremiér s řadou afér chce být prezidentem. Topolánek už sehnal potřebné podpisy senátorů" [Eloquent and penetrative former Prime Minister with a series of scandals wants to be president. Topolanek has already got the necessary signatures from the senators]. Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  46. ^ "Nový prezidentský kandidát? Předseda Akademie věd Jiří Drahoš zkusí boj o Hrad | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 15 October 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  47. ^ ČTK, Echo24, (10 November 2017). "Ministerstvo ho vyřadilo z boje o Hrad. Toman je však přesvědčen, že podpisy měl". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  48. ^ "Na Hrad chce i "mlsná tygřice". Alchymistka, co zná Bartoše, loví poslance". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  49. ^ "Výzva k odstranění závad na kandidátní listině". www.mvcr.cz (in Czech). 15 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017. 
  50. ^ "Nový kandidát na prezidenta: Invaze a nechutná zvěrstva muslimů. Arogantní lhář Zeman. Diktátor Putin, soudružka Merkelová a úžasný Trump. Zastal jsem se obětí romské tlupy..." Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  51. ^ Švec, Michael (6 November 2017). "Záhada neznámého prezidentského kandidáta vyřešena. Je jím třiasedmdesátiletý muž, který vnitru odevzdal jen jeden poslanecký podpis". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  52. ^ "Nadával umělcům kvůli šaškárnám s Bradym, teď ohlásil kandidaturu na prezidenta. Vysmál se falešnému karbaníkovi i všemocnému kobliháři". page-maintitle-short-default. Retrieved 15 January 2017. 
  53. ^ "Nečekaná zpráva: Z boje o Hrad odstoupil jeden z prezidentských kandidátů. Proč? | EuroZprávy.cz". Eurozprávy. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  54. ^ 2016, SPR-RSČ. "Volba prezidenta republiky". Retrieved 30 August 2016. 
  55. ^ "Miroslav Sládek jde do prezidentské kandidatury". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  56. ^ "Z prezidentské volby odstoupil známý kandidát. S ohledem na volby nemá smysl kandidovat, tvrdí". Eurozprávy. Retrieved 27 October 2017. 
  57. ^ "Na prezidenta chce kandidovat i zadlužený podnikatel Boštík". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  58. ^ "Vedení lidovců podpořilo v boji o Hrad Jiřího Drahoše". Deník.cz (in Czech). 14 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  59. ^ a b c "Starostové vyzvali demokratické strany k podpoře Drahoše" [Mayors have called on democratic parties to support Drahos]. Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  60. ^ "SPD nepřímo podpořila Zemana. Hnutí se vyslovilo pro přesun ambasády do Jeruzaléma". Euro.cz (in Czech). 9 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  61. ^ "SPO podporuje v prezidentských volbách Miloše Zemana". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  62. ^ "Babiš bude na Hrad volit Zemana. Nekrade, drží slovo, řekl premiér". iDNES.cz. 11 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018. 
  63. ^ a b "ODS podpořila na Hrad Topolánka, vlastního kandidáta nepostaví" [The ODS supportes Topolánek Castle and will not Promote its own Candidate]. Novinky (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  64. ^ "Nový předseda Svobodných: Miloš Zeman je prezidentem těch, kterým už leze krkem, jak jimi "lepší lidé" opovrhují. Tu máte, náfukové, ať vám v kavárně praskne cévka". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 7 January 2018. 
  65. ^ "Pospíšil: Drahoš má větší šanci oslovit antizemanovský tábor než Topolánek". iDNES.cz. 7 November 2017. Retrieved 7 November 2017. 
  66. ^ "Předseda SZ Stropnický představil v DR strategii strany k prezidentské volbě". Strana zelených (in Czech). 1 June 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2017. 
  67. ^ "Dotazy na kandidáty na prezidenta České republiky". Moravané - Politická strana (in Czech). 24 November 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  68. ^ "KSČM podpoří v prezidentské volbě kandidáta, co s ní bude mluvit". www.ceskenoviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  69. ^ "Piráti kandidáta na prezidenta stavět nebudou". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  70. ^ "Sociální demokraté svého kandidáta do boje o Hrad nepostaví". iDNES.cz. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  71. ^ "ČSSD nepodpoří konkrétního kandidáta na prezidenta. Stranická podpora se přeceňuje, tvrdí Chovanec". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 22 November 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  72. ^ "Další rozkol v ČSSD? Foldyna se kvůli Zemanovi postavil předsednictvu. A poslal důrazný vzkaz". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  73. ^ "Hašek a Zimola chtějí zachránit ČSSD. Zakládají platformu, podpoří Zemana". iDNES.cz. 4 January 2018. Retrieved 4 January 2018. 
  74. ^ "Mladí socialisté by poslali Drahoše na Hrad hned v prvním kole. Zeman je třetí | Aktuálně.cz". Aktuálně.cz - Víte, co se právě děje (in Czech). 9 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017. 
  75. ^ a b "Drahoš může počítat s podporou TOP 09 - E15.cz". Zprávy E15.cz. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  76. ^ a b "ODS se rozhodla podpořit na Hrad Drahoše, odmítla menšinovou vládu ANO". iDNES.cz. 14 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018. 
  77. ^ "Škromach chce kandidovat na prezidenta. Konec srandy, beru to vážně, tvrdí | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 2 February 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  78. ^ "Halík zvažuje kandidaturu na Hrad. Nezříkám se zodpovědnosti, uvedl". iDNES.cz. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  79. ^ "Klaus: Pokud bude kandidovat na prezidenta Halík, budu muset i já | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 10 August 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  80. ^ "Halík: Církev mi kandidaturu nezakázala, ani nemohla, Zeman nemluví pravdu". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  81. ^ "Halík, Horáček. Svěrák, Sedláček. Kroměřížská výzva hledá kandidáta na prezidenta". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  82. ^ "Zvažuji kandidaturu na prezidenta, Zeman volby znovu nevyhraje, říká Michal Horáček". Aktuálně.TV - Jen to, co musíte vidět. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  83. ^ "Čtenáři serveru Lidovky.cz by za prezidenta volili Horáčka. V anketě porazil Zemana | Domov". Lidovky.cz. 6 June 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  84. ^ "Předvolební průzkum: Zemana nejvíce ohrožuje Horáček". 28 June 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  85. ^ "Na vládě protestoval proti Putinovi, teď chce nahradit Zemana. Lékař Marek Hilšer zahájil kampaň". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  86. ^ "Nevidím nebezpečí, na co ploty, říká lékař Hilšer. Chce porazit Zemana". iDNES.cz. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  87. ^ "Horáček: Cítím ohrožení toho, co mám rád a čeho si vážím". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  88. ^ "Nástupce Zemana? Horáček bude kandidovat". TÝDEN.cz. 3 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  89. ^ Bartoníček, Radek (3 November 2016). "Horáček: Nebudu chtít nominaci od politické strany, bez podpisů občanů by boj o prezidenta neměl smysl". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  90. ^ "Zneužili státní svátek a zahájili předvolební kampaň, opřel se Zeman do Gazdíka s Horáčkem". Rozhlas.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  91. ^ "Horáček: Jsem mnohem lepší než Schwarzenberg, umím jazyky. On nepochopil, co udělal špatně". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  92. ^ "Horáček na námluvách. Zemanův vyzyvatel navštívil lidovce i Starosty". iDNES.cz. 1 July 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  93. ^ "Schwarzenberg o útoku Horáčka: "Valchař" je zklamaný, že jsem ho nepodpořil". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  94. ^ "Schwarzenberg se ostře pustil do Horáčka. Čtení, které vás zvedne ze židle | Globe24.cz" (in Czech). Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  95. ^ "Schwarzenberg: Horáček na Hrad? To není ideální kandidát". TÝDEN.cz. 13 November 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  96. ^ "V prezidentské anketě drtivě vede Pánek. Má to ale dvě ale - Echo24.cz". Echo24 (in Czech). 24 December 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  97. ^ "Přípravy na volbu prezidenta zamrzly. Strany vyčkávají, co udělá Miloš Zeman - Seznam Zprávy". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 16 January 2017. 
  98. ^ "Zeman bude znovu bojovat o Hrad, tvrdí jeho spolupracovník". iDNES.cz. 31 January 2017. Retrieved 31 January 2017. 
  99. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Horáček představil tým dvanácti poradců. Jsou v něm Drábová, Vášáryová i cyklista König". Hospodářské noviny (in Czech). 9 February 2017. 
  100. ^ "Horáčkovi bude na Hrad pomáhat Drábová a Vášáryová". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  101. ^ "Zeman poradil SPO, ať jde do voleb jako podpora Okamury. Ten je proti". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  102. ^ "Prezident Zeman byl na prohlídce v nemocnici Na Bulovce". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  103. ^ "Poslední rok Zemana. Soupeři začali sbírat podpisy, sehnat 50 tisíc bude těžké - Seznam Zprávy". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 9 March 2017. 
  104. ^ "Necítím se jako favorit, řekl Zeman při oznámení kandidatury". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  105. ^ "Přesvědčila mě podpora lidí, řekl Zeman. Debatám s protivníky se vyhne". iDNES.cz. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  106. ^ "Zeman se nechce účastnit předvolebních debat s protikandidáty. Horáčkovi se to nelíbí". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  107. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Karel Štogl: Za zády ho měl Tvrdík, Sobotka i Rath". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  108. ^ "Štogl na hrad. Tam ještě nebyl". www.pressreader.com. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  109. ^ "Exšéf škodovky nebo úředník z ČSSD. Kdo porazí Zemana?". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  110. ^ a b "Drahoš kandiduje na Hrad. Politici to uvítali, Ovčáček ho začal urážet". iDNES.cz. 28 March 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2017. 
  111. ^ "Drahoš má mezi předsedy stran podporu. Ovčáček ho kritizuje - Echo24.cz". Echo24 (in Czech). 28 March 2017. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  112. ^ "Ovčáčka nečtu, je to pod úroveň, řekl kandidát na prezidenta Drahoš". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  113. ^ "Drahoš: Komunisté adorují Stalina, vládu s nimi bych odmítl. Sbírat podpisy mi pomohou pěvecké sbory". Aktuálně.cz - Víte co se právě děje (in Czech). 30 March 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2017. 
  114. ^ "Horáček začal sbírat podpisy pro prezidentskou volbu. Favoritem nejsem, říká". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 16 April 2017. 
  115. ^ Bohuslavová, Renáta (24 April 2017). "Zemanovu nekampaň zahájila manželka Ivana. Podpis a rychle pryč". Echo24 (in Czech). Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  116. ^ "Zeman odpálil svůj šrapnel. Řekl, že má šéfku volebního týmu: Ivanu Zemanovou". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 20 April 2017. 
  117. ^ "Prezidentský kandidát Drahoš začne sbírat podpisy od pondělí". Deník.cz (in Czech). 21 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  118. ^ "Drahoš začal sbírat podpisy, už má 500 dobrovolníků". Echo24 (in Czech). 24 April 2017. Retrieved 24 April 2017. 
  119. ^ "Drahoš už má mluvčí, redaktorku ČT Lenku Pastorčákovou". Echo24 (in Czech). 22 April 2017. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  120. ^ "Michal Horáček má prý hotovo. Může kandidovat na Hrad". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 6 May 2017. 
  121. ^ "Sobotkova pomsta: ČSSD chce vlastního kandidáta proti Zemanovi". Echo24 (in Czech). 16 May 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  122. ^ "Politická bomba: ČSSD zvažuje vlastního kandidáta na prezidenta. Hrad už reaguje". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  123. ^ "Strategie z ČSSD: Postavit prezidentského kandidáta, který Zemana neporazí, ale oslabí, aby nepostoupil do druhého kola". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  124. ^ "Na koaliční krizi prodělá ČSSD i ANO. Po volbách hrozí chaos, varuje politolog Jelínek". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  125. ^ "Uznávaný sociolog Herzmann pronáší vážná slova k protestům na Václaváku: Může to vypadat jako mobilizace veřejnosti, ale ve skutečnosti..." Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  126. ^ "KOMENTÁŘ: Proč Zeman nejspíš už nebude prezidentem – Jiří Pehe". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
  127. ^ "Sobotkovi kandidáti na Hrad: Štěch či Zaorálek. S Babišem do vlády už ne". iDNES.cz. 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2017. 
  128. ^ "Zemanovi kvůli vládní krizi mírně klesly preference". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 28 May 2017. 
  129. ^ "Unavený Zeman. V Číně vrávorá, podpírají jej, použil i vozík". Echo24 (in Czech). 17 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  130. ^ "Zeman na summitu NATO vynechal projevy státníků, u kterých se stálo". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  131. ^ "Unavený Zeman míří do Vietnamu. Musí upravit program, apeluje jeho lékař". Echo24 (in Czech). 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  132. ^ "Tohle není Miloš Zeman, naznačuje temně Tomáš Zdechovský. Ten se vrátil z Bílého domu a sděluje nové informace. Ať radši nečte Petr Mach". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  133. ^ "Kubera: Zákon se změkčí, v zimě vyhánět kuřáky na ulici je zdravotní nesmysl". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  134. ^ "Zeman je na tom hodně špatně, duševně slábne, možná nebude kandidovat, říká diplomat Kolář". video.info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  135. ^ "Miloš Zeman zdravotně odchází. Nepoznávám ho, tvrdí europoslanec". Expres.cz. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  136. ^ "Zeman je unavený a má mít volno, řekl osobní lékař. Mynářova úleva nestačí". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  137. ^ "Hrad poprvé přiznává, že prezident Zeman není úplně ve formě. Zmáhá ho náročný program". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  138. ^ "To není pan farář? Drahoš v Opavě rozpačitě rozjel prezidentskou kampaň". iDNES.cz. 26 May 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  139. ^ "Kalouskův cíl: dvouciferný výsledek, euro co nejdřív a Drahoš na Hradě". iDNES.cz. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017. 
  140. ^ "Drahoš na Hrad, ozývá se stále hlasitěji od lidovců. S kandidátem na prezidenta čekají na starosty". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  141. ^ "Horáček má splněno, jako první nasbíral 50 000 hlasů ke kandidatuře". Echo24 (in Czech). 1 June 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  142. ^ "Horáček už má 50 tisíc podpisů, rychle přibývají i Zemanovi a Drahošovi". iDNES.cz. 1 June 2017. Retrieved 1 June 2017. 
  143. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Jiří Drahoš už sehnal 25 tisíc podpisů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 5 June 2017. 
  144. ^ "Senátoři podpoří mou prezidentskou kandidaturu, hlásí exšéf Rusnokova kabinetu. Stačí 10 podpisů". iROZHLAS (in Czech). Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  145. ^ "Drahoš odmítá Horáčkovu nabídku: Jsme z ní v rozpacích". Echo24 (in Czech). 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  146. ^ "Horáček chce sbírat podpisy i pro soupeře, od Drahoše ale dostal košem". iDNES.cz. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 26 June 2017. 
  147. ^ "Prezidentský kandidát, lékař Marek Hilšer: Miloš Zeman na svoji funkci fyzicky nemá". Forum24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  148. ^ "Exšéf Škodovky Kulhánek bude kandidovat na prezidenta, stojí za ním ODA". iDNES.cz. 29 June 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2018. 
  149. ^ "Bývalý šéf Škody Auto Kulhánek kandiduje na prezidenta za ODA". www.ceskenoviny.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 29 June 2017. 
  150. ^ "Já žádnou agenturu na kampaň nepotřebuji, ujišťoval Michal Horáček. A teď si jednu najal..." Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  151. ^ "Lidovci a Starostové potvrdili koalici, v boji o Hrad podpoří Drahoše". iDNES.cz. 4 July 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  152. ^ "Zemanova politika, opačné chování? Petr Hannig chce být novým prezidentem". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  153. ^ "Další muž v boji o Hrad: Hudebníka a věčného kandidáta do sněmovny Hanniga podpoří krajní pravice". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  154. ^ televize, Česká. "Kubera nasbíral v Senátu podpisy pro kandidaturu na Hrad". ČT24 (in Czech). Retrieved 20 July 2017. 
  155. ^ "Zeman má dostatek podpisů pro kandidaturu, hlásí Veleba. Zdraví prý není překážkou". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  156. ^ "Drahoš i Hilšer dál sbírají podpisy na Hrad, Zeman i Horáček jich mají dost". Blesk.cz. Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  157. ^ "Zeman má podpisy pro opětovnou kandidaturu". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 16 August 2017. 
  158. ^ "Drahoš má už 40 tisíc podpisů, do Mladé Boleslavi přivezl Grygara i dalekohled". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 August 2017. 
  159. ^ "Drahoš v námořnickém děkoval za 78 321 podpisů pro boj o Hrad". iDNES.cz. 19 August 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  160. ^ "Zastupuje zbrojaře, teď chce Hynek kandidovat na prezidenta". iDNES.cz. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 21 August 2017. 
  161. ^ "Zemanovo zdraví? To není problém prezidenta, ale novinářů, popíchl Ovčáček". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  162. ^ "Zeman na Živitelce nazval dotace na snižování výroby mléka zvěrstvem". iDNES.cz. 24 August 2017. Retrieved 24 August 2017. 
  163. ^ "Podnikatel Boštík chce kandidovat na prezidenta. Mám 63 tisíc podpisů, tvrdí". iDNES.cz. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  164. ^ "Dobýt hrad chce i podnikatel Vladimír Boštík z Orlickoústecka". Orlický deník (in Czech). 30 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017. 
  165. ^ "Kandidovat na prezidenta chce bývalý velvyslanec Fischer". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 4 October 2017. 
  166. ^ "Uprchlíky by Fischer přijal, dal by si pozor jmenovat premiérem stíhaného". iDNES.cz. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  167. ^ "Drahoš podpořil přijetí eura. Má 110 tisíc podpisů, pomáhá mu i Drábová". iDNES.cz. 10 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  168. ^ "Kandidát na prezidenta Jiří Drahoš ukončuje sběr podpisů. Na kontě má již 110 tisíc podpisů". Dobryprezident.cz (in Czech). 10 October 2017. Retrieved 13 October 2017. 
  169. ^ "Dalším prezidentským kandidátem je Jiří Hynek, získal podpisy poslanců". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 17 October 2017. 
  170. ^ "Robejškův prezidentský kandidát má vystaráno. Kandidaturu mu podepsali poslanci pěti stran". Parlamentní Listy. Retrieved 17 October 2017. 
  171. ^ "Počet prezidentských uchazečů se dále rozrůstá, podpisy poslanců má i Kulhánek". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 18 October 2017. 
  172. ^ "První žena chce na Hrad, Hilšer získal podporu od senátorů". www.seznam.cz. Retrieved 2 November 2017. 
  173. ^ "Jdu do toho, abych vyhrál, řekl Drahoš a odevzdal 142 tisíc podpisů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 3 November 2017. 
  174. ^ "Půjde Topolánek do boje o Hrad?". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 4 November 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  175. ^ "Topolánek na Hrad? Bývalý premiér usiluje o podpisy senátorů". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 4 November 2017. 
  176. ^ "Nejzkorumpovanější premiér, zaútočil Babiš na Topolánka kandidujícího na Hrad". Novinky.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  177. ^ "Topolánkova kandidatura? To je špatný vtip, ohradil se Drahoš". Echo24.cz (in Czech). 6 November 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  178. ^ ČTK, Echo24, (6 November 2017). "Topolánek může kandidovat na Hrad. Získal potřebné podpisy senátorů". Echo24.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  179. ^ "Ohrozí Topolánek Zemana a Drahoše? Podle některých politologů má šanci na druhé kolo". Info.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  180. ^ "Má Topolánek v boji o Hrad reálnou šanci? Politologové se neshodnou | EuroZprávy.cz". EuroZprávy.cz. Retrieved 6 November 2017.