The Society Portal
A human society is a group of people related to each other through continued relations, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or virtual territory, same interests, subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Human societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions. A given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent members. In the social sciences, a larger society often evinces stratification and/or dominance patterns in subgroups.
In so far as it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that would not otherwise be possible on an individual basis; both individual and social (common) benefits can thus be distinguished, or in many cases found to overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people governed by their own norms and values within a dominant, larger society. This is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term used extensively within criminology: an organized group working together having a common interests, beliefs, or profession.
More broadly, a society may be described as an economic, social, or industrial infrastructure, made up of a varied collection of individuals or subgroups. Members of a society may be from different ethnic groups. A society can be a particular ethnic group, such as the Saxons; a nation state, such as Bhutan; or a broader cultural group, such as a Western society. The word society may also refer to an organized voluntary association of people for religious, benevolent, cultural, scientific, political, patriotic, or other purposes. A "society" may also be a group of social organisms such as an ant colony, or any cooperative aggregate such as, for example, in some formulations of artificial intelligence.
were a people of uncertain origin who were active in Northern Europe during the Viking Age
. They were active from roughly the late ninth century through the early twelfth century and could be found in areas of Lapland
, Russia, and the Byzantine Empire
that were frequented by Scandinavian
traders, raiders and mercenaries. Scholars differ on whether the Kylfings were ethnically Finnic
. Their geographic origin is also disputed; Denmark
and the Eastern Baltic
are put forward as candidates. Whether the name Kylfing denotes a particular tribal, socio-political, or economic grouping is a matter of much debate. They are mentioned in Old Norse runestone
, and poetry
, as well as Byzantine
records and Rus'
law-codes, in which they were afforded significant economic and social privileges. According to the sagas, the Kylfings opposed the consolidation of Norway
under Harald Fairhair
and participated in the pivotal Battle of Hafrsfjord
. After Harald's victory in that battle, they are described in the sagas as having raided in Finnmark
and elsewhere in northern Norway
and having fought against Harald's lieutenants such as Thorolf Kveldulfsson
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Anniversaries this month
was an American statesman
, and political philosopher
, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States
. Adams was instrumental in garnering the support of the colonies in rebellion against Great Britain
, ultimately resulting in the American Revolution
. He was also one of the key architects of the principles of American republicanism
that shaped American political culture
. Adams organized protests against the British, including the Boston Tea Party
in 1773, and participated in the Continental Congress
. He also advocated for the adoption of the Declaration of Independence
at the Second Continental Congress
. Following the American Revolution, Adams helped draft the Articles of Confederation
. After the war ended, he ran for the House of Representatives
in the 1st United States Congressional
election, but was unsuccessful in his bid. He was elected Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
in 1789 and after John Hancock
's death in 1793, Adams served as the acting governor, until he was elected governor in January of the following year. He served in that position until June 1797 when he decided to retire from politics.
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